Honey bees are considered large-scale monitoring tools due to their environmental exploration and foraging activities. Traces of these activities can be recovered in the honey that also may reflect the hive ecological micro-conditions in which it has been produced. This study applied a next generation sequencing platform (Ion Torrent) for shotgun metagenomic analysis of honey environmental DNA (eDNA). The study tested a methodological framework to interpret DNA sequence information useful to describe the complex ecosystems of the honey bee colony superorganism, its pathosphere and the heterogeneity of the agroecological environments and environmental sources that left DNA marks in the honey. Analysis of two honeys reported sequence reads from five main organism groups (kingdoms or phyla): arthropods (that mainly included reads from Apis mellifera, several other members of the Hymenotpera, in addition to members of the Diptera, Coleoptera and Lepidoptera, as well as aphids and mites), plants (that clearly confirmed the botanical origin of the two honeys, i.e. orange tree blossom and eucalyptus tree blossom honeys), fungi and bacteria (including common hive and honey bee gut microorganisms, honey bee pathogens and plant pathogens), and viruses (which accounted for the largest number of reads in both honeys, mainly assigned to Apis mellifera filamentous virus). The shotgun metagenomic approach that was used in this study can be applied in large scale experiments that might have multiple objectives according to the multi-kingdom derived eDNA that is contained in the honey.