Short-Term Effect of Feedstock and Pyrolysis Temperature on Biochar Characteristics, Soil and Crop Response in Temperate Soils

Victoria Nelissen, Greet Ruysschaert, Dorette Sophie Müller-Stöver, Samuel Bodé, Jason Cook, Frederik Ronsse, Simon Shackley, Pascal Boeckx, Henrik Hauggaard-Nielsen

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

204 Downloads (Pure)

Abstract

At present, there is limited understanding of how biochar application to soil could be beneficial to crop growth in temperate regions and which biochar types are most suitable. Biochar’s (two feedstocks: willow, pine; three pyrolysis temperatures: 450 °C, 550 °C, 650 °C) effect on nitrogen (N) availability, N use efficiency and crop yield was studied in northwestern European soils using a combined approach of process-based and agronomic experiments. Biochar labile carbon (C) fractions were determined and a phytotoxicity test, sorption experiment, N incubation experiment and two pot trials were conducted. Generally, biochar caused decreased soil NO3availability and N use efficiency, and reduced biomass yields compared to a control soil. Soil NO3concentrations were more reduced in the willow compared to the pine biochar treatments and the reduction increased with increasing pyrolysis temperatures, which was also reflected in the biomass yields. Woody biochar types can cause short-term reductions in biomass production due to reduced N availability. This effect is biochar feedstock and pyrolysis temperature dependent. Reduced mineral N availability was not caused by labile biochar C nor electrostatic NH4+/NO3 sorption. Hence, the addition of fresh biochar might in some cases require increased fertilizer N application to avoid short-term crop growth retardation.
Original languageEnglish
JournalAgronomy Journal
Volume4
Issue number1
Pages (from-to)52-73
Number of pages22
ISSN0002-1962
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2014

Keywords

  • Biochar
  • Nitrogen
  • Crop Growth
  • Labile Carbon
  • Soil Fertility
  • Adsorption

Cite this

Nelissen, V., Ruysschaert, G., Müller-Stöver, D. S., Bodé, S., Cook, J., Ronsse, F., ... Hauggaard-Nielsen, H. (2014). Short-Term Effect of Feedstock and Pyrolysis Temperature on Biochar Characteristics, Soil and Crop Response in Temperate Soils. Agronomy Journal, 4(1), 52-73. https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy4010052
Nelissen, Victoria ; Ruysschaert, Greet ; Müller-Stöver, Dorette Sophie ; Bodé, Samuel ; Cook, Jason ; Ronsse, Frederik ; Shackley, Simon ; Boeckx, Pascal ; Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik. / Short-Term Effect of Feedstock and Pyrolysis Temperature on Biochar Characteristics, Soil and Crop Response in Temperate Soils. In: Agronomy Journal. 2014 ; Vol. 4, No. 1. pp. 52-73.
@article{7f2db8aa09484fb8a4fe65d204b4dd40,
title = "Short-Term Effect of Feedstock and Pyrolysis Temperature on Biochar Characteristics, Soil and Crop Response in Temperate Soils",
abstract = "At present, there is limited understanding of how biochar application to soil could be beneficial to crop growth in temperate regions and which biochar types are most suitable. Biochar’s (two feedstocks: willow, pine; three pyrolysis temperatures: 450 °C, 550 °C, 650 °C) effect on nitrogen (N) availability, N use efficiency and crop yield was studied in northwestern European soils using a combined approach of process-based and agronomic experiments. Biochar labile carbon (C) fractions were determined and a phytotoxicity test, sorption experiment, N incubation experiment and two pot trials were conducted. Generally, biochar caused decreased soil NO3−availability and N use efficiency, and reduced biomass yields compared to a control soil. Soil NO3−concentrations were more reduced in the willow compared to the pine biochar treatments and the reduction increased with increasing pyrolysis temperatures, which was also reflected in the biomass yields. Woody biochar types can cause short-term reductions in biomass production due to reduced N availability. This effect is biochar feedstock and pyrolysis temperature dependent. Reduced mineral N availability was not caused by labile biochar C nor electrostatic NH4+/NO3− sorption. Hence, the addition of fresh biochar might in some cases require increased fertilizer N application to avoid short-term crop growth retardation.",
keywords = "Biochar, Nitrogen, Crop Growth, Labile Carbon, Soil Fertility, Adsorption",
author = "Victoria Nelissen and Greet Ruysschaert and M{\"u}ller-St{\"o}ver, {Dorette Sophie} and Samuel Bod{\'e} and Jason Cook and Frederik Ronsse and Simon Shackley and Pascal Boeckx and Henrik Hauggaard-Nielsen",
year = "2014",
doi = "10.3390/agronomy4010052",
language = "English",
volume = "4",
pages = "52--73",
journal = "Agronomy Journal",
issn = "0002-1962",
publisher = "American Society of Agronomy, Inc.",
number = "1",

}

Nelissen, V, Ruysschaert, G, Müller-Stöver, DS, Bodé, S, Cook, J, Ronsse, F, Shackley, S, Boeckx, P & Hauggaard-Nielsen, H 2014, 'Short-Term Effect of Feedstock and Pyrolysis Temperature on Biochar Characteristics, Soil and Crop Response in Temperate Soils', Agronomy Journal, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 52-73. https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy4010052

Short-Term Effect of Feedstock and Pyrolysis Temperature on Biochar Characteristics, Soil and Crop Response in Temperate Soils. / Nelissen, Victoria; Ruysschaert, Greet; Müller-Stöver, Dorette Sophie; Bodé, Samuel; Cook, Jason; Ronsse, Frederik; Shackley, Simon; Boeckx, Pascal; Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik.

In: Agronomy Journal, Vol. 4, No. 1, 2014, p. 52-73.

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Short-Term Effect of Feedstock and Pyrolysis Temperature on Biochar Characteristics, Soil and Crop Response in Temperate Soils

AU - Nelissen, Victoria

AU - Ruysschaert, Greet

AU - Müller-Stöver, Dorette Sophie

AU - Bodé, Samuel

AU - Cook, Jason

AU - Ronsse, Frederik

AU - Shackley, Simon

AU - Boeckx, Pascal

AU - Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik

PY - 2014

Y1 - 2014

N2 - At present, there is limited understanding of how biochar application to soil could be beneficial to crop growth in temperate regions and which biochar types are most suitable. Biochar’s (two feedstocks: willow, pine; three pyrolysis temperatures: 450 °C, 550 °C, 650 °C) effect on nitrogen (N) availability, N use efficiency and crop yield was studied in northwestern European soils using a combined approach of process-based and agronomic experiments. Biochar labile carbon (C) fractions were determined and a phytotoxicity test, sorption experiment, N incubation experiment and two pot trials were conducted. Generally, biochar caused decreased soil NO3−availability and N use efficiency, and reduced biomass yields compared to a control soil. Soil NO3−concentrations were more reduced in the willow compared to the pine biochar treatments and the reduction increased with increasing pyrolysis temperatures, which was also reflected in the biomass yields. Woody biochar types can cause short-term reductions in biomass production due to reduced N availability. This effect is biochar feedstock and pyrolysis temperature dependent. Reduced mineral N availability was not caused by labile biochar C nor electrostatic NH4+/NO3− sorption. Hence, the addition of fresh biochar might in some cases require increased fertilizer N application to avoid short-term crop growth retardation.

AB - At present, there is limited understanding of how biochar application to soil could be beneficial to crop growth in temperate regions and which biochar types are most suitable. Biochar’s (two feedstocks: willow, pine; three pyrolysis temperatures: 450 °C, 550 °C, 650 °C) effect on nitrogen (N) availability, N use efficiency and crop yield was studied in northwestern European soils using a combined approach of process-based and agronomic experiments. Biochar labile carbon (C) fractions were determined and a phytotoxicity test, sorption experiment, N incubation experiment and two pot trials were conducted. Generally, biochar caused decreased soil NO3−availability and N use efficiency, and reduced biomass yields compared to a control soil. Soil NO3−concentrations were more reduced in the willow compared to the pine biochar treatments and the reduction increased with increasing pyrolysis temperatures, which was also reflected in the biomass yields. Woody biochar types can cause short-term reductions in biomass production due to reduced N availability. This effect is biochar feedstock and pyrolysis temperature dependent. Reduced mineral N availability was not caused by labile biochar C nor electrostatic NH4+/NO3− sorption. Hence, the addition of fresh biochar might in some cases require increased fertilizer N application to avoid short-term crop growth retardation.

KW - Biochar

KW - Nitrogen

KW - Crop Growth

KW - Labile Carbon

KW - Soil Fertility

KW - Adsorption

U2 - 10.3390/agronomy4010052

DO - 10.3390/agronomy4010052

M3 - Journal article

VL - 4

SP - 52

EP - 73

JO - Agronomy Journal

JF - Agronomy Journal

SN - 0002-1962

IS - 1

ER -