Thermal stress is an important design factor that will influence structural responses and cause local warping deformations. In this paper, such temperature variation effect is considered in the structural optimization and the shape preserving design approach is extended into thermo-elastic problems to prevent local thermal damages. Based on the weak-coupled thermo-elastic system, nonlinear structural responses at large thermo-mechanical loads are accurately analyzed. The complementary elastic work is minimized to obtain a reasonable rigid structure. Corresponding integrated deformation energy is utilized to calculate the warping deformation accumulated in the incremental thermo-mechanical loading process. Shape preserving effect is then achieved by an additional constraint on the local deformation energy. Through the adjoint method, sensitivity analysis is derived in the coupled field with design-dependent heat conduction and geometrical nonlinearity. In the numerical implementation, an energy interpolation scheme is applied to circumvent numerical instability in low stiffness regions and further modified for multi-material design. Optimization results show that local distortions in thermo-elastic structures are effectively eliminated by the proposed shape preserving design approach.
- Shape preserving design
- Geometrically nonlinear topology optimization
- Thermo-elastic problem
- Integrated deformation energy