Serotyping, PCR, phage-typing and antibiotic sensitivity testing of Salmonella serovars isolated from urban drinking water supply systems of Nepal

D.R. Bhatta, A. Bangtrakulnonth, P. Tishyadhigama, S.D. Saroj, J.R. Bandekar, Rene S. Hendriksen, B.P. Kapadnis

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Aims: To study the occurrence and diversity of Salmonella serovars in urban water supply systems of Nepal. Methods and Results: Occurrence of Salmonella was detected in 42 out of 300 water samples by enrichment culture technique in selenite F broth followed by plating on Salmonella Shigella agar. A total of 54 isolates identified to genus level by standard tests were subsequently confirmed by serotyping, phage typing and PCR detection of virulence genes (inv A and spv C). The predominant serotype was Salmonella Typhimurium, followed by Salm. Typhi, Salm. Paratyphi A and Salmonella Enteritidis. Most of the Salm. Typhi isolates were E1 phage type followed by UVS4, A and UVS1. All isolates of Salm. Paratyphi A and Salm. Enteritidis were an untypable (UT) phage type. The majority of isolates were multi-drug resistant as revealed by Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion technique. Ceftriaxone resistant isolates of Salm. Enteritidis indicated the presence of one of the ESBL genes, blaSHV, whereas the genes blaTEM and blaCTX were absent. Conclusions: The microbiological quality of the urban water supply is poor and indicates possibility of fatal outbreaks of enteric fever and related infections in Nepal. Significance and Impact of the Study: The present study will be useful in water borne disease control and prevention strategy formulation in Nepal and in the global context.
Original languageEnglish
JournalLetters in Applied Microbiology
Issue number6
Pages (from-to)588-594
Publication statusPublished - 2007


  • Salmonella Typhimurium
  • multi drug resistance
  • serotyping
  • Salmonella Enteritidis
  • phage typing
  • Salmonella Typhi
  • Salmonella Paratyphi A

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