Serological evidence of hepatitis E virus infection in pigs and jaundice among pig handlers in Bangladesh

Najmul Haider, M. S. U. Khan, M. B. Hossain, H. M. S. Sazzad, M. Z. Rahman, F. Ahmed, N. S. Zeidner

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    Abstract

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is the most common cause of viral hepatitis in humans. Pigs may act as a reservoir of HEV, and pig handlers were frequently identified with a higher prevalence of antibodies to HEV. The objectives of this study were to identify evidence of HEV infection in pigs and compare the history of jaundice between pig handlers and people not exposed to pigs and pork. Blood and faecal samples were col-lected from 100 pigs derived from three slaughterhouses in the Gazipur district of Bangladesh from January to June, 2011. We also interviewed 200 pig handlers and 250 non- exposed people who did not eat pork or handled pigs in the past 2 years. We tested the pig sera for HEV- specific antibodies using a competitive ELISA and pig fae-cal samples for HEV RNA using real- time RT- PCR. Of 100 pig sera, 82% (n = 82) had detectable antibody against HEV. Of the 200 pig handlers, 28% (56/200) demon-strated jaundice within the past 2 years, whereas only 17% (43/250) of controls had a history of jaundice (p < .05). Compared to non- exposed people, those who slaugh-tered pigs (31% versus 15%, p < .001), reared pigs (37% versus 20%, p < .001), butch-ered pigs (35% versus 19%, p < .001) or involved in pork transportation (28% versus 13%, p < .001) were more likely to be affected with jaundice in the preceding 2 years. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, exposure to pigs (odds ratio [OR]: 2.2, 95% CI: 1.2–3.9) and age (OR: 0.97, 95% CI: 0.95–0.99) was significantly associated with jaundice in the past 2 years. Pigs in Bangladesh demonstrated evidence of HEV infec-tion, and a history of jaundice was significantly more frequent in pig handlers. Identifying and genotyping HEV in pigs and pig handlers may provide further evidence of the pig’s role in zoonotic HEV transmission in Bangladesh.
    Original languageEnglish
    JournalZoonoses and Public Health
    Volume64
    Issue number7
    Pages (from-to)572-577
    ISSN1863-1959
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 2017

    Keywords

    • Bangladesh
    • Hepatitis E virus
    • Jaundice
    • Pig handlers
    • Pigs
    • Pork
    • Zoonotic HEV

    Cite this

    Haider, N., Khan, M. S. U., Hossain, M. B., Sazzad, H. M. S., Rahman, M. Z., Ahmed, F., & Zeidner, N. S. (2017). Serological evidence of hepatitis E virus infection in pigs and jaundice among pig handlers in Bangladesh. Zoonoses and Public Health, 64(7), 572-577. https://doi.org/10.1111/zph.12372
    Haider, Najmul ; Khan, M. S. U. ; Hossain, M. B. ; Sazzad, H. M. S. ; Rahman, M. Z. ; Ahmed, F. ; Zeidner, N. S. . / Serological evidence of hepatitis E virus infection in pigs and jaundice among pig handlers in Bangladesh. In: Zoonoses and Public Health. 2017 ; Vol. 64, No. 7. pp. 572-577.
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    abstract = "Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is the most common cause of viral hepatitis in humans. Pigs may act as a reservoir of HEV, and pig handlers were frequently identified with a higher prevalence of antibodies to HEV. The objectives of this study were to identify evidence of HEV infection in pigs and compare the history of jaundice between pig handlers and people not exposed to pigs and pork. Blood and faecal samples were col-lected from 100 pigs derived from three slaughterhouses in the Gazipur district of Bangladesh from January to June, 2011. We also interviewed 200 pig handlers and 250 non- exposed people who did not eat pork or handled pigs in the past 2 years. We tested the pig sera for HEV- specific antibodies using a competitive ELISA and pig fae-cal samples for HEV RNA using real- time RT- PCR. Of 100 pig sera, 82{\%} (n = 82) had detectable antibody against HEV. Of the 200 pig handlers, 28{\%} (56/200) demon-strated jaundice within the past 2 years, whereas only 17{\%} (43/250) of controls had a history of jaundice (p < .05). Compared to non- exposed people, those who slaugh-tered pigs (31{\%} versus 15{\%}, p < .001), reared pigs (37{\%} versus 20{\%}, p < .001), butch-ered pigs (35{\%} versus 19{\%}, p < .001) or involved in pork transportation (28{\%} versus 13{\%}, p < .001) were more likely to be affected with jaundice in the preceding 2 years. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, exposure to pigs (odds ratio [OR]: 2.2, 95{\%} CI: 1.2–3.9) and age (OR: 0.97, 95{\%} CI: 0.95–0.99) was significantly associated with jaundice in the past 2 years. Pigs in Bangladesh demonstrated evidence of HEV infec-tion, and a history of jaundice was significantly more frequent in pig handlers. Identifying and genotyping HEV in pigs and pig handlers may provide further evidence of the pig’s role in zoonotic HEV transmission in Bangladesh.",
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    author = "Najmul Haider and Khan, {M. S. U.} and Hossain, {M. B.} and Sazzad, {H. M. S.} and Rahman, {M. Z.} and F. Ahmed and Zeidner, {N. S.}",
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    Haider, N, Khan, MSU, Hossain, MB, Sazzad, HMS, Rahman, MZ, Ahmed, F & Zeidner, NS 2017, 'Serological evidence of hepatitis E virus infection in pigs and jaundice among pig handlers in Bangladesh', Zoonoses and Public Health, vol. 64, no. 7, pp. 572-577. https://doi.org/10.1111/zph.12372

    Serological evidence of hepatitis E virus infection in pigs and jaundice among pig handlers in Bangladesh. / Haider, Najmul; Khan, M. S. U.; Hossain, M. B. ; Sazzad, H. M. S. ; Rahman, M. Z.; Ahmed, F.; Zeidner, N. S. .

    In: Zoonoses and Public Health, Vol. 64, No. 7, 2017, p. 572-577.

    Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

    TY - JOUR

    T1 - Serological evidence of hepatitis E virus infection in pigs and jaundice among pig handlers in Bangladesh

    AU - Haider, Najmul

    AU - Khan, M. S. U.

    AU - Hossain, M. B.

    AU - Sazzad, H. M. S.

    AU - Rahman, M. Z.

    AU - Ahmed, F.

    AU - Zeidner, N. S.

    PY - 2017

    Y1 - 2017

    N2 - Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is the most common cause of viral hepatitis in humans. Pigs may act as a reservoir of HEV, and pig handlers were frequently identified with a higher prevalence of antibodies to HEV. The objectives of this study were to identify evidence of HEV infection in pigs and compare the history of jaundice between pig handlers and people not exposed to pigs and pork. Blood and faecal samples were col-lected from 100 pigs derived from three slaughterhouses in the Gazipur district of Bangladesh from January to June, 2011. We also interviewed 200 pig handlers and 250 non- exposed people who did not eat pork or handled pigs in the past 2 years. We tested the pig sera for HEV- specific antibodies using a competitive ELISA and pig fae-cal samples for HEV RNA using real- time RT- PCR. Of 100 pig sera, 82% (n = 82) had detectable antibody against HEV. Of the 200 pig handlers, 28% (56/200) demon-strated jaundice within the past 2 years, whereas only 17% (43/250) of controls had a history of jaundice (p < .05). Compared to non- exposed people, those who slaugh-tered pigs (31% versus 15%, p < .001), reared pigs (37% versus 20%, p < .001), butch-ered pigs (35% versus 19%, p < .001) or involved in pork transportation (28% versus 13%, p < .001) were more likely to be affected with jaundice in the preceding 2 years. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, exposure to pigs (odds ratio [OR]: 2.2, 95% CI: 1.2–3.9) and age (OR: 0.97, 95% CI: 0.95–0.99) was significantly associated with jaundice in the past 2 years. Pigs in Bangladesh demonstrated evidence of HEV infec-tion, and a history of jaundice was significantly more frequent in pig handlers. Identifying and genotyping HEV in pigs and pig handlers may provide further evidence of the pig’s role in zoonotic HEV transmission in Bangladesh.

    AB - Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is the most common cause of viral hepatitis in humans. Pigs may act as a reservoir of HEV, and pig handlers were frequently identified with a higher prevalence of antibodies to HEV. The objectives of this study were to identify evidence of HEV infection in pigs and compare the history of jaundice between pig handlers and people not exposed to pigs and pork. Blood and faecal samples were col-lected from 100 pigs derived from three slaughterhouses in the Gazipur district of Bangladesh from January to June, 2011. We also interviewed 200 pig handlers and 250 non- exposed people who did not eat pork or handled pigs in the past 2 years. We tested the pig sera for HEV- specific antibodies using a competitive ELISA and pig fae-cal samples for HEV RNA using real- time RT- PCR. Of 100 pig sera, 82% (n = 82) had detectable antibody against HEV. Of the 200 pig handlers, 28% (56/200) demon-strated jaundice within the past 2 years, whereas only 17% (43/250) of controls had a history of jaundice (p < .05). Compared to non- exposed people, those who slaugh-tered pigs (31% versus 15%, p < .001), reared pigs (37% versus 20%, p < .001), butch-ered pigs (35% versus 19%, p < .001) or involved in pork transportation (28% versus 13%, p < .001) were more likely to be affected with jaundice in the preceding 2 years. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, exposure to pigs (odds ratio [OR]: 2.2, 95% CI: 1.2–3.9) and age (OR: 0.97, 95% CI: 0.95–0.99) was significantly associated with jaundice in the past 2 years. Pigs in Bangladesh demonstrated evidence of HEV infec-tion, and a history of jaundice was significantly more frequent in pig handlers. Identifying and genotyping HEV in pigs and pig handlers may provide further evidence of the pig’s role in zoonotic HEV transmission in Bangladesh.

    KW - Bangladesh

    KW - Hepatitis E virus

    KW - Jaundice

    KW - Pig handlers

    KW - Pigs

    KW - Pork

    KW - Zoonotic HEV

    U2 - 10.1111/zph.12372

    DO - 10.1111/zph.12372

    M3 - Journal article

    C2 - 28670851

    VL - 64

    SP - 572

    EP - 577

    JO - Zoonoses and Public Health

    JF - Zoonoses and Public Health

    SN - 1863-1959

    IS - 7

    ER -