This research investigated the effects of two varieties of broken rice (Khouzestan and Lenjan) from warm and dry regions, and two (Hashemi and Tarom) from mild and humid regions on different parameters including dough rheology, digestibility and quality (color, specific volume, textural properties and sensorial properties) of a commercial gluten-free bread. Furthermore, the rice varieties' hydration properties, gelatinization temperatures and starch-granule morphology were assessed. Significant differences were observed in the varieties' proximate composition and hydration properties from both climate zones. The granules' average size was 3.17-4.9 µm. The specific volume of the breads showed no correlation with either the damaged starch content or the amylose content, but had a significant negative correlation with hardness (r = -0.923, P<0.05). The crumb hardness of bread was positively correlated with water-binding capacity and was affected by elastic modulus of dough. Results of predicted glycemic index were in accordance with total carbohydrates. Khouzestan received the highest score in sensory evaluation test. Based on the outcomes for bread-quality attributes, Khouzestan from the warm and dry region, which is a cheaper rice variety in Iran, was the most appropriate variety for gluten-free bread production. Moreover, it was determined that the rice varieties currently used in commercial manufacture of gluten-free bread do not necessarily yield the highest-quality bread.
- Gluten-free bread