Scalable, ambient atmosphere roll-to-roll manufacture of encapsulated large area, flexible organic tandem solar cell modules

Thomas Rieks Andersen, Henrik Friis Dam, Markus Hösel, Martin Helgesen, Jon Eggert Carlé, Thue Trofod Larsen-Olsen, Suren Gevorgyan, Jens Wenzel Andreasen, Jens Adams, Ning Li, Florian Machui, George D. Spyropoulos, Tayebeh Ameri, Noella Lemaıtre, Mathilde Legros, Arnulf Scheel, Detlef Gaiser, Kilian Kreul, Stephane Berny, Owen R. LozmanSirpa Nordman, Marja Välimäki, Marja Vilkman, Roar R. Søndergaard, Mikkel Jørgensen, Christoph J. Brabec, Frederik C Krebs

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review


Inline printing and coating methods have been demonstrated to enable a high technical yield of fully roll-to-roll processed polymer tandem solar cell modules. We demonstrate generality by employing different material sets and also describe how the ink systems must be carefully co-developed in order to reach the ambitious objective of a fully printed and coated 14-layer flexible tandem solar cell stack. The roll-to-roll methodologies involved are flexographic printing, rotary screen printing, slot-die coating, X-ray scattering, electrical testing and UV-lamination. Their combination enables the manufacture of completely functional devices in exceptionally high yields. Critical to the ink and process development is a carefully chosen technology transfer to industry method where first a roll coater is employed enabling contactless stack build up, followed by a small roll-to-roll coater fitted to an X-ray machine enabling in situ studies of wet ink deposition and drying mechanisms, ultimately elucidating how a robust inline processed recombination layer is key to a high technical yield. Finally, the transfer to full roll-to-roll processing is demonstrated.
Original languageEnglish
JournalEnergy & Environmental Science
Pages (from-to)2925-2933
Publication statusPublished - 2014


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