ROTI maps of Greenland using kriging

S. S. Beeck*, A. B. O. Jensen

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

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GNSS satellite signals are affected by the media when traversing Earth’s atmosphere, and the performance of GNSS based positioning and navigation is correlated with these effects. In the ionosphere, the signals are affected by the number of electrons along the signal path which can be quantified by the total electron content. The focus of this article is scintillation effects caused by electrons in the Arctic ionosphere, and the rate of the total electron content index, the ROTI, is used as a measure of the scintillation.
Data from permanent GNSS reference stations in Greenland is used to generate maps of the ROTI in Greenland, and the novelty of the work in this paper is the application of the ordinary kriging method as the basis for ROTI maps in the Arctic. Further, the choice of satellite constellations as well as the elevation mask used in the data analyses are analyzed and discussed. Also, the performance of using ordinary kriging for ROTI maps during times with both a low and a very high geomagnetic activity are discussed. The results show that ordinary kriging performs well during high geomagnetic activity, while during low activity the natural neighbor interpolation method is a better choice for the Arctic.
Original languageEnglish
JournalJournal of Geodetic Science
Issue number1
Pages (from-to)83-94
Publication statusPublished - 2021


  • Arctic
  • Global Navigation Satellite System
  • Greenland
  • Interpolation
  • Ionosphere
  • Kriging
  • Navigation
  • Rate of TEC index
  • Scintillation
  • Total Electron Content


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