Phase-only spatial light modulation is used to shape light in microscopy,micromanipulation, microfabrication and biophotonics. One application of phasemodulation is the creation of dynamic optical traps for directly controlling themotion of microscopic particles by using programmable spatial light modulators(SLMs). Similarly, light can be phase-sculpted to match and target biologicalmaterial or trigger localized biochemical reactions. Despite its versatility,phase-only spatial light modulation requires pricey SLMs, which limit its use inphotonics research. However, consumer projectors are much more affordable.Researchers have started to explore using projectors based onliquid-crystal-onsilicon (LCoS) as binary-only phase modulators by replacing theincoherent light source with a laser of appropriate polarization.
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