Risk assessment of the asthma-induction potential of substances in spray products for car cabin detailing – based on EU’s Chemical Agents Directive, using harmonised classifications and quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR)

Kasper Mikkelsen, Jorid B. Sørli, Marie Frederiksen, Niels Hadrup*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

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Abstract

Exposure to spray-formulated products for car cabin detailing is a potential risk for asthma induction. With a focus on the asthma-related endpoints sensitisation and irritation of the lungs, we performed an occupational risk assessment based on requirements in the EU Chemical Agents Directive. We identified 71 such spray products available in Denmark. We identified ingredient substances in safety data sheets and screened for harmonised classifications of respiratory sensitisation and airway irritation. For respiratory sensitisation, we also applied quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR). We modelled the exposure during 15 min of work inside a car cabin, and determined the risk ratio of the products by further applying occupational exposure limits – mainly derived no-effect levels (DNELs) from the European Chemicals Agency (ECHA) set on respiratory irritation. Four substances had a harmonised classification for respiratory irritation (bronopol, 2-phenoxyethanol, 2-methoxypropanol, and butan-1-ol). Seven substances were positive in the QSAR model for respiratory sensitisation (monoethanolamine, bronopol, glycerol, methyl salicylate, benzoic acid, ammonium benzoate, and sodium benzoate). Two vinyl treatment products had a risk ratio > 1 based on the level of sodium benzoate and its DNEL set on respiratory irritation. Two products had risk ratios of 0.69 and 0.73, respectively, based on 2-methyl-2 H-isothiazol-3-one and its acute DNEL set on respiratory irritation. In conclusion, 10 substances that may pose a risk for asthma induction were identified in the products. Two of the 71 products had a risk ratio > 1, meaning they may pose an asthma-induction risk in the modelled exposure scenario and using respiratory irritation DNELs from ECHA.
Original languageEnglish
Article number153612
JournalToxicology
Volume495
Number of pages8
ISSN0300-483X
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2023

Keywords

  • Respiratory sensitisation
  • Respiratory irritation
  • Inhalation
  • Toxicology
  • In silico
  • trigger spray

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