Risk assessment of chemicals in food and diet: Hazard identification by methods of animal-based toxicology

S. M. Barlow, J. B. Greig, J. W. Bridges, A. Carere, A. J. M. Carpy, G. L. Galli, J. Kleiner, I. Knudsen, H. B. W. M. Koeter, L. S. Levy, Charlotte Bernhard Madsen, S. Mayer, J. F. Narbonne, F. Pfannkuch, M. G. Prodanchuk, M. R. Smith, P. Steinberg

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This paper is one of several prepared under the project "Food Safety In Europe: Risk Assessment of Chemicals in Food and Diet" (FOSIE). a European Commission Concerted Action Programme, organised by the International Life Sciences Institute. Europe (ILSI). The aim of the FOSIE project is to review the current state of the science of risk assessment of chemicals in food and diet, by consideration of the four stages of risk assessment, that is. hazard identification. hazard characterisation, exposure assessment and risk characterisation. The contribution of animal-based methods in toxicology to hazard identification of chemicals in food and diet is discussed. The importance of first applying existing technical and chemical knowledge to the design of safety testing programs for Food chemicals is emphasised. There is consideration of the presently available and commonly used toxicity testing approaches and methodologies, including acute and repeated dose toxicity, reproductive and developmental toxicity, neurotoxicity, genotoxicity, carcinogenicity, immunotoxicity and food allergy. They are considered from the perspective of whether they are appropriate tor assessing food chemicals and whether them are adequate to detect currently known or anticipated hazards from food. Gap. in knowledge and future research needs are identified: research or these could lead to improvements in the methods of hazard identification for food chemicals. The potential impact of some emerging techniques, and toxicological issues, on hazard identification for food chemicals, such as new measurement techniques, the use of transgenic animals, assessment of hormone balance and the possibilities for conducting studies in which common human diseases have been modelled. is also considered. (C) 2002 ILSI. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.
Original languageEnglish
JournalFood and Chemical Toxicology
Issue number2-3
Pages (from-to)145-191
Publication statusPublished - 2002


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