Rheological characterization of 3D printable geopolymers

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This study demonstrates a two-step approach that enables quantification of concrete printability through dynamics mode rheological measurements; I) modeling shearing history during extrusion; II) monitoring the hardening evolution of deposited material by applying a strain smaller than the critical strain. It is shown that the shearing history of the material is removed by imposing a pre-shearing above the critical strain, and zero value yield stress is measured for all specimens. At step II, a linear extrapolation of the green strength development can quantify the static yield stress at the origin, which we used to quantify the material printability. As far as this yield stress surpasses the stress level that exists in the printed structure, the material retains its shape stability. We show the performance of the model on a series of geopolymer mortars with a wide range of rheological properties as a function of material composition, aging, and pre-shearing consequences.
Original languageEnglish
Article number106498
JournalCement and Concrete Research
Number of pages10
Publication statusPublished - 2021


  • 3D concrete printing
  • Rheology
  • Geopolymer
  • Fly Ash


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