Review of secondary metabolites and mycotoxins from the Aspergillus niger group

Kristian Fog Nielsen, Jesper Mølgaard Mogensen, Maria Johansen, Thomas Ostenfeld Larsen, Jens Christian Frisvad

    Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

    Abstract

    Filamentous fungi in the Aspergillus section Nigri (the black aspergilli) represent some of the most widespread food and feed contaminants known but they are also some of the most important workhorses used by the biotechnological industry. The Nigri section consists of six commonly found species (excluding A. aculeatus and its close relatives) from which currently 145 different secondary metabolites have been isolated and/or detected. From a human and animal safety point of view, the mycotoxins ochratoxin A (from A. carbonarius and less frequently A. niger) and fumonisin B2 (from A. niger) are currently the most problematic compounds. Especially in foods and feeds such as coffee, nuts, dried fruits, and grape-based products where fumonisin-producing fusaria are not a problem, fumonisins pose a risk. Moreover, compounds such as malformins, naptho-γ-pyrones, and bicoumarins (kotanins) call for monitoring in food, feed, and biotechnology products as well as for a better toxicological evaluation, since they are often produced in large amounts by the black aspergilli. For chemical differentiation/identification of the less toxic species the diketopiperazine asperazine can be used as a positive marker since it is consistently produced by A. tubingensis (177 of 177 strains tested) and A. acidus (47 of 47 strains tested) but never by A. niger (140 strains tested). Naptho-γ-pyrones are the compounds produced in the highest quantities and are produced by all six common species in the group (A. niger 134 of 140; A. tubingensis 169 of 177; A. acidus 44 of 47; A. carbonarius 40 of 40, A. brasiliensis 18 of 18; and A. ibericus three of three).
    Original languageEnglish
    JournalAnalytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
    Volume395
    Issue number5
    Pages (from-to)1225-1242
    ISSN1618-2642
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 2009

    Cite this

    Nielsen, Kristian Fog ; Mogensen, Jesper Mølgaard ; Johansen, Maria ; Larsen, Thomas Ostenfeld ; Frisvad, Jens Christian. / Review of secondary metabolites and mycotoxins from the Aspergillus niger group. In: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry. 2009 ; Vol. 395, No. 5. pp. 1225-1242.
    @article{59fabf67cdc64bf787e41f777793488e,
    title = "Review of secondary metabolites and mycotoxins from the Aspergillus niger group",
    abstract = "Filamentous fungi in the Aspergillus section Nigri (the black aspergilli) represent some of the most widespread food and feed contaminants known but they are also some of the most important workhorses used by the biotechnological industry. The Nigri section consists of six commonly found species (excluding A. aculeatus and its close relatives) from which currently 145 different secondary metabolites have been isolated and/or detected. From a human and animal safety point of view, the mycotoxins ochratoxin A (from A. carbonarius and less frequently A. niger) and fumonisin B2 (from A. niger) are currently the most problematic compounds. Especially in foods and feeds such as coffee, nuts, dried fruits, and grape-based products where fumonisin-producing fusaria are not a problem, fumonisins pose a risk. Moreover, compounds such as malformins, naptho-γ-pyrones, and bicoumarins (kotanins) call for monitoring in food, feed, and biotechnology products as well as for a better toxicological evaluation, since they are often produced in large amounts by the black aspergilli. For chemical differentiation/identification of the less toxic species the diketopiperazine asperazine can be used as a positive marker since it is consistently produced by A. tubingensis (177 of 177 strains tested) and A. acidus (47 of 47 strains tested) but never by A. niger (140 strains tested). Naptho-γ-pyrones are the compounds produced in the highest quantities and are produced by all six common species in the group (A. niger 134 of 140; A. tubingensis 169 of 177; A. acidus 44 of 47; A. carbonarius 40 of 40, A. brasiliensis 18 of 18; and A. ibericus three of three).",
    author = "Nielsen, {Kristian Fog} and Mogensen, {Jesper M{\o}lgaard} and Maria Johansen and Larsen, {Thomas Ostenfeld} and Frisvad, {Jens Christian}",
    year = "2009",
    doi = "10.1007/s00216-009-3081-5",
    language = "English",
    volume = "395",
    pages = "1225--1242",
    journal = "Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry",
    issn = "1618-2642",
    publisher = "Springer",
    number = "5",

    }

    Review of secondary metabolites and mycotoxins from the Aspergillus niger group. / Nielsen, Kristian Fog; Mogensen, Jesper Mølgaard; Johansen, Maria; Larsen, Thomas Ostenfeld; Frisvad, Jens Christian.

    In: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, Vol. 395, No. 5, 2009, p. 1225-1242.

    Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

    TY - JOUR

    T1 - Review of secondary metabolites and mycotoxins from the Aspergillus niger group

    AU - Nielsen, Kristian Fog

    AU - Mogensen, Jesper Mølgaard

    AU - Johansen, Maria

    AU - Larsen, Thomas Ostenfeld

    AU - Frisvad, Jens Christian

    PY - 2009

    Y1 - 2009

    N2 - Filamentous fungi in the Aspergillus section Nigri (the black aspergilli) represent some of the most widespread food and feed contaminants known but they are also some of the most important workhorses used by the biotechnological industry. The Nigri section consists of six commonly found species (excluding A. aculeatus and its close relatives) from which currently 145 different secondary metabolites have been isolated and/or detected. From a human and animal safety point of view, the mycotoxins ochratoxin A (from A. carbonarius and less frequently A. niger) and fumonisin B2 (from A. niger) are currently the most problematic compounds. Especially in foods and feeds such as coffee, nuts, dried fruits, and grape-based products where fumonisin-producing fusaria are not a problem, fumonisins pose a risk. Moreover, compounds such as malformins, naptho-γ-pyrones, and bicoumarins (kotanins) call for monitoring in food, feed, and biotechnology products as well as for a better toxicological evaluation, since they are often produced in large amounts by the black aspergilli. For chemical differentiation/identification of the less toxic species the diketopiperazine asperazine can be used as a positive marker since it is consistently produced by A. tubingensis (177 of 177 strains tested) and A. acidus (47 of 47 strains tested) but never by A. niger (140 strains tested). Naptho-γ-pyrones are the compounds produced in the highest quantities and are produced by all six common species in the group (A. niger 134 of 140; A. tubingensis 169 of 177; A. acidus 44 of 47; A. carbonarius 40 of 40, A. brasiliensis 18 of 18; and A. ibericus three of three).

    AB - Filamentous fungi in the Aspergillus section Nigri (the black aspergilli) represent some of the most widespread food and feed contaminants known but they are also some of the most important workhorses used by the biotechnological industry. The Nigri section consists of six commonly found species (excluding A. aculeatus and its close relatives) from which currently 145 different secondary metabolites have been isolated and/or detected. From a human and animal safety point of view, the mycotoxins ochratoxin A (from A. carbonarius and less frequently A. niger) and fumonisin B2 (from A. niger) are currently the most problematic compounds. Especially in foods and feeds such as coffee, nuts, dried fruits, and grape-based products where fumonisin-producing fusaria are not a problem, fumonisins pose a risk. Moreover, compounds such as malformins, naptho-γ-pyrones, and bicoumarins (kotanins) call for monitoring in food, feed, and biotechnology products as well as for a better toxicological evaluation, since they are often produced in large amounts by the black aspergilli. For chemical differentiation/identification of the less toxic species the diketopiperazine asperazine can be used as a positive marker since it is consistently produced by A. tubingensis (177 of 177 strains tested) and A. acidus (47 of 47 strains tested) but never by A. niger (140 strains tested). Naptho-γ-pyrones are the compounds produced in the highest quantities and are produced by all six common species in the group (A. niger 134 of 140; A. tubingensis 169 of 177; A. acidus 44 of 47; A. carbonarius 40 of 40, A. brasiliensis 18 of 18; and A. ibericus three of three).

    U2 - 10.1007/s00216-009-3081-5

    DO - 10.1007/s00216-009-3081-5

    M3 - Journal article

    VL - 395

    SP - 1225

    EP - 1242

    JO - Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry

    JF - Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry

    SN - 1618-2642

    IS - 5

    ER -