Review of Oxepine-Pyrimidinone-Ketopiperazine Type Nonribosomal Peptides

Yaojie Guo, Jens C. Frisvad, Thomas O. Larsen*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReviewpeer-review

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Recently, a rare class of nonribosomal peptides (NRPs) bearing a unique Oxepine-Pyrimidinone-Ketopiperazine (OPK) scaffold has been exclusively isolated from fungal sources. Based on the number of rings and conjugation systems on the backbone, it can be further categorized into three types A, B, and C. These compounds have been applied to various bioassays, and some have exhibited promising bioactivities like antifungal activity against phytopathogenic fungi and transcriptional activation on liver X receptor α. This review summarizes all the research related to natural OPK NRPs, including their biological sources, chemical structures, bioassays, as well as proposed biosynthetic mechanisms from 1988 to March 2020. The taxonomy of the fungal sources and chirality-related issues of these products are also discussed.
Original languageEnglish
Article number246
Issue number6
Number of pages13
Publication statusPublished - 2020


  • Oxepine
  • Nonribosomal peptides
  • Bioactivity
  • Biosynthesis
  • Fungi
  • Aspergillus


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