Review of friction modeling in metal forming processes

C.V. Nielsen*, N. Bay

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

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Abstract In metal forming processes, friction between tool and workpiece is an important parameter influencing the material flow, surface quality and tool life. Theoretical models of friction in metal forming are based on analysis of the real contact area in tool-workpiece interfaces. Several research groups have studied and modeled the asperity flattening of workpiece material against tool surface in dry contact or in contact interfaces with only thin layers of lubrication with the aim to improve understanding of friction in metal forming. This paper aims at giving a review of the most important contributions during the last 80 years covering experimental techniques, upper bound solutions, slip-line analyses and numerical simulations. Each of the contributions shed light on the importance of the real contact area and the influencing parameters including the material properties, surface conditions, normal pressure, sliding length and speed, temperature changes, friction on the flattened plateaus and deformation of the underlying material. The review illustrates the development in the understanding of asperity flattening and the methods of analysis.
Original languageEnglish
JournalJournal of Materials Processing Technology
Pages (from-to)234–241
Publication statusPublished - 2018


  • Metal forming tribology
  • Asperity flattening
  • Real contact area

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