Traditionally, direct imaging of atom diffusion is only available by scanning tunneling microscopy and field ion microscopy on geometry-constrained samples: flat surfaces for STM and needle tips for FIM. Here we show time-resolved atomic-scale HRTEM investigations of CeO2-supported Au nanoparticle surfaces to characterize the surface dynamics of atom columns on gold nanoparticles. The observed surface dynamics have been categorized into four types: layer jumping, layer gliding, re-orientation and surface reconstruction. We successfully captured atoms moving in a concerted manner with a time resolution of 0.1 s. A quantitative approach for measuring the dynamics in various gaseous surroundings at elevated temperatures is presented. An approach for measuring quantitative electron beam effects on the surface dynamics is presented by counting atom column occupation as a function of time under a range of dose rates in high vacuum.