Retrieving Sea Level and Freeboard in the Arctic: A Review of Current Radar Altimetry Methodologies and Future Perspectives

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal article – Annual report year: 2019Researchpeer-review

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DOI

  • Author: Quartly, Graham D.

    Plymouth Marine Laboratory, United Kingdom

  • Author: Rinne, Eero

    Finnish Meteorological Institute, Finland

  • Author: Passaro, Marcello

    Technische Universität München, Germany

  • Author: Andersen, Ole B.

    Geodesy, National Space Institute, Technical University of Denmark, Elektrovej, 2800, Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark

  • Author: Dinardo, Salvatore

    HE Space Operations GmbH, Germany

  • Author: Fleury, Sara

    Laboratoire d’Études en Géophysique et Océanographie Spatiales, France

  • Author: Guillot, Amandine

    CNES Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales, France

  • Author: Hendricks, Stefan

    Alfred Wegener Institute - Helmholtz Centre for Polar and Marine Research, Germany

  • Author: Kurekin, Andrey A.

    Plymouth Marine Laboratory, United Kingdom

  • Author: Mueller, Felix L.

    Technische Universität München, Germany

  • Author: Ricker, Robert

    Alfred Wegener Institute - Helmholtz Centre for Polar and Marine Research, Germany

  • Author: Skourup, Henriette

    Geodynamics, National Space Institute, Technical University of Denmark, Elektrovej, 2800, Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark

  • Author: Tsamados, Michel

    University College London, United Kingdom

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Spaceborne radar altimeters record echo waveforms over all Earth surfaces, but their interpretation and quantitative exploitation over the Arctic Ocean is particularly challenging. Radar returns may be from all ocean, all sea ice, or a mixture of the two, so the first task is the determination of which surface and then an interpretation of the signal to give range. Subsequently, corrections have to be applied for various surface and atmospheric effects before making a comparison with a reference level. This paper discusses the drivers for improved altimetry in the Arctic and then reviews the various approaches that have been used to achieve the initial classification and subsequent retracking over these diverse surfaces, showing examples from both LRM (low resolution mode) and SAR (synthetic aperture radar) altimeters. The review then discusses the issues concerning corrections, including the choices between using other remote-sensing measurements and using those from models or climatology. The paper finishes with some perspectives on future developments, incorporating secondary frequency, interferometric SAR and opportunities for fusion with measurements from laser altimetry or from the SMOS salinity sensor, and provides a full list of relevant abbreviations.
Original languageEnglish
Article number881
JournalRemote Sensing
Volume11
Issue number7
Number of pages47
ISSN2072-4292
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2019
CitationsWeb of Science® Times Cited: No match on DOI

    Research areas

  • Altimetry, Classification, Retracking, Arctic oceanography, Sea-ice, Freeboard, Review, Future vision

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