Response of the Ti and Al electron spin resonance signals in quartz to X-ray irradiation

Sumiko Tsukamoto*, Frank Oppermann, Martin Autzen, Marcus Richter, Mark Bailey, Christina Ankjærgaard, Mayank Jain

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

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Equivalent dose determination with electron spin resonance (ESR) involves laboratory irradiation of samples using a calibrated source. In this study, we investigated the response of the quartz ESR signals to irradiations from 50 kV or 200 kV X-ray sources by inter-comparison with 60Co gamma irradiation using seven quartz samples of different origins. For each sample, the equivalent X-ray irradiation time required to create the same concentration of defects as a known dose of 60Co gamma-ray was calculated. The effective dose rate was obtained from the given gamma dose (188 Gy) divided by the equivalent X-ray irradiation time; this is referred to as the ‘X-ray dose rate’ in this study. The X-ray dose rate estimates from different samples were relatively uniform. However, the dose rate calculated from the Al centre was on average ∼10% higher than that of the Ti centre, and more scattered among different samples especially for the low-energy X-ray source. The ratio of the dose rates, obtained from the two centres (Al/Ti) varied significantly between the samples; four sediment samples from Tajikistan, China, Chile and Greece yielded consistent dose rates from both centres for both sources, whereas the remaining three samples from Japan and Taiwan showed a dose rate up to 26% higher from the Al centre compared to the Ti centre. The cause of the higher effective dose rate for the Al centre for these three samples requires further investigations.

Original languageEnglish
Article number106676
JournalRadiation Measurements
Number of pages8
Publication statusPublished - 2021


  • Al centre
  • Effective dose rate
  • ESR dating
  • Quartz
  • Ti centre
  • X-ray irradiation


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