Respiratory performance of humans exposed to moderate levels of carbon dioxide

Asit Kumar Mishra*, Stefano Schiavon, Pawel Wargocki, Kwok Wai Tham

*Corresponding author for this work

    Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

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    In a business as usual scenario, atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration (CO2) could reach 950 parts per million (ppm) by 2100. Indoor CO2 concentrations will rise consequently, given its dependence on atmospheric CO2 levels. If buildings are ventilated following current standards in 2100, indoor CO2 concentration could be over 1300 ppm, depending on specific ventilation codes. Such exposure to CO2 could have physiological and psychological effects on building occupants. We conducted a randomized, within-subject study, examining the physiological effects on the respiratory functions of 15 persons. We examined three exposures, each 150 min long, with CO2 of: 900 ppm (reference), 1450 ppm (decreased ventilation), and 1450 ppm (reference condition with added pure CO2). We measured respiratory parameters with capnometry and forced vital capacity (FVC) tests. End-tidal CO2 and respiration rates did not significantly differ across the three exposures. Parameters measured using FVC decreased significantly from the start to the end of exposure only at the reduced ventilation condition (p < 0.04, large effect size). Hence, poor ventilation likely affects respiratory parameters. This effect is probably not caused by increased CO2 alone and rather by other pollutants—predominantly human bioeffluents in this work—whose concentrations increased as a result.

    Original languageEnglish
    JournalIndoor Air
    Issue number5
    Pages (from-to)1540-1552
    Publication statusPublished - 2021

    Bibliographical note

    Funding Information:
    This work was funded by the Republic of Singapore's National Research Foundation through the SinBerBEST program and was conducted in the SinBerBEST Testbed (‐page/testbed‐facilities ).


    • End-tidal CO2
    • Forced vital capacity
    • Future buildings
    • Respiration
    • Spirometry
    • Ventilation


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