The main objective of this research is to study the residual macroscopic stress in titanium-nitride, TiN, coatings deposited onto a tool steer substrate. The measurements were performed with a theta-theta decoupled X-ray diffractometer. The coatings were manufactured using an industrial pulsed-DC plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PECVD) technique. The coatings were characterized in terms of microstructure, mechanical and tribological properties. A parametric study of the deposition parameters was performed. Process pressure, bias voltage, temperature and partial gas flows (argon, hydrogen, nitrogen and titanium tetra chloride) were varied in an effort to obtain optimal coating properties. Besides the bi-axial stress, the stress-free lattice constant, d(0), are presented as well as an indication of the changes in texture as a function of process parameter. Total macroscopic stress values were found to range from -1.5 to 1.5 GPa. The intrinsic stresses for the major part of the coatings were close to zero lending to low intrinsic strain energies favouring a preferred orientation of the coating corresponding to the plane with the lowest surface energy which is (200). Other properties are also discussed, e.g. microstructure, composition and hardness.
Thomsen, N. B., Horsewell, A., Mogensen, K. S., Eskildsen, S. S., Mathiasen, C., & Bøttiger, J. (1998). Residual stress determination in PECVD TiN coatings by X-ray diffraction: a parametric study. Thin Solid Films, 333(1-2), 50-59. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0040-6090(98)00804-9