Requirements of future European balancing markets: insights into imbalance volumes and generation availability

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The share of Variable Renewable Energy (VRE) sources, especially wind and solar, is increasing in the European energy systems. Despite their environmental benefits, variability and forecast uncertainty caused by VRE technologies pose challenges in maintaining supply-demand balance. Yet, due to current electricity market construct, a major volume of VRE generation is transacted in day-ahead markets. The considerable temporal separation between the gate closures and actual delivery often results in forecast deviations. Thus, aggravating imbalances and leading to frequency fluctuations and price spikes of succeeding electricity markets. European system operators are integrating balancing markets to uphold adequate reserves to meet imbalances. Initiatives such as MARI and PICASSO are being developed as integrated market-clearing platforms for manual and automatic frequency estoration reserves. While it is evident that the integrated market clearing mechanisms help to ensure reserve sufficiency at optimal costs, it is equally important to comprehend the evolution of imbalance volumes and available generation capacity of future balancing markets. This can help in assessing balancing reserve requirements, in terms of volume and ramping, and underlying bottlenecks of capacity investment decisions. This paper focuses on such underlying aspects. The developed balancing tool chain in this work relies on the generator-level operational profiles, tie-line power flows, and hour-ahead VRE forecasts.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationProceedings of 22nd Wind and Solar Integration Workshop (WIW 2023)
Number of pages7
PublisherInstitution of Engineering and Technology
Publication date2023
ISBN (Electronic)978-1-83953-966-4
Publication statusPublished - 2023
Event22nd Wind and Solar Integration Workshop
- DTU, Lyngby, Denmark
Duration: 26 Sept 202328 Sept 2023


Conference22nd Wind and Solar Integration Workshop
Internet address


  • Balancing markets
  • Energy system planning
  • Forecast uncertainty
  • Imbalance volumes
  • MARI


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