Release of Corrosive Species above the Grate in a Waste Boiler and the Implication for Improved Electrical Efficiency

Martin Bøjer, Peter Arendt Jensen, Kim Dam-Johansen, Ole Hedegaard Madsen, Kasper Lundtorp

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Abstract

A relatively low electrical efficiency of 20−25% is obtained in typical west European waste boilers. Ash species released from the grate combustion zone form boiler deposits with high concentrations of Cl, Na, K, Zn, Pb, and S that cause corrosion of superheater tubes at high temperature. The superheater steam temperature has to be limited to around 425 °C, and thereby, the electrical efficiency remains low compared to wood or coal-fired boilers. If a separate part of the flue gas from the grate has a low content of corrosive species, it may be used to superheat steam to a higher temperature, and thereby, the electrical efficiency of the plant can be increased. In this study, the local temperature, the gas concentrations of CO, CO2, and O2, and the release of the volatile elements Cl, S, Na, K, Pb, Zn, Cu, and Sn were measured above the grate in a waste boiler to investigate if a selected fraction of the flue gas could be applied for increased steam superheating. On a 26 ton/h grate-fired waste boiler, Vestforbrænding unit 5 in Denmark, local probe measurements were performed in five ports along the grate and in the top of the boiler chamber. New extraction probe equipment were designed and used to extract a flue gas with high contents of tar. Gas concentration measurements of O2, CO, and CO2 showed that the waste experienced pyrolysis and combustion on grate sections 1 and 2, some char combustion takes place on section 3, and the slag was cooled on sections 4 and 5. The measurements showed that the waste grate combustion process can provide a flue gas with a high energy content and a relatively low concentration of corrosive species. This opens up for the possibility of using an additional superheater section to increase the steam temperature and, thereby, increase electrical efficiency.
Original languageEnglish
JournalEnergy & Fuels
Volume24
Issue number10
Pages (from-to)5696-5707
ISSN0887-0624
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2010

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