Reinforcement of Calcium Phosphate Cement with Hybrid Silk Fibroin/Kappa-Carrageenan Nanofibers

Fahimeh Roshanfar*, Saeed Hesaraki*, Alireza Dolatshahi-Pirouz, Mohsen Saeidi, Sara Leal-Marin, Birgit Glasmacher, Gorka Orive, Sajjad Khan Einipour

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

46 Downloads (Pure)


Calcium phosphate cements (CPCs) offer a promising solution for treating bone defects due to their osteoconductive, injectable, biocompatible, and bone replacement properties. However, their brittle nature restricts their utilization to non-load-bearing applications. In this study, the impact of hybrid silk fibroin (SF) and kappa-carrageenan (k-CG) nanofibers as reinforcements in CPC was investigated. The CPC composite was fabricated by incorporating electrospun nanofibers in 1, 3, and 5% volume fractions. The morphology, mineralization, mechanical properties, setting time, injectability, cell adhesion, and mineralization of the CPC composites were analyzed. The results demonstrated that the addition of the nanofibers improved the CPC mixture, leading to an increase in compressive strength (14.8 ± 0.3 MPa compared to 8.1 ± 0.4 MPa of the unreinforced CPC). Similar improvements were seen in the bending strength and work fracture (WOF). The MC3T3-E1 cell culture experiments indicated that cells attached well to the surfaces of all cement samples and tended to join their adjacent cells. Additionally, the CPC composites showed higher cell mineralization after a culture period of 14 days, indicating that the SF/k-CG combination has potential for applications as a CPC reinforcement and bone cell regeneration promoter.

Original languageEnglish
Article number850
Issue number3
Number of pages12
Publication statusPublished - 2023


  • Calcium phosphates cement
  • Kappa-carrageenan
  • Mechanical strength
  • Nanofiber reinforcement
  • Silk fibroin


Dive into the research topics of 'Reinforcement of Calcium Phosphate Cement with Hybrid Silk Fibroin/Kappa-Carrageenan Nanofibers'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this