Low-energy district heating systems, operating at low temperature of 55 °C as supply and 25°C as return, can be the energy solution as being the prevailing heating infrastructure in urban areas, considering future energy schemesaiming at increased exploitation of renewable energy sources together with low-energy houses in focus with intensified energy efficiency measures. Employing low-temperature operation allows the ease to exploit not only any type of heat source but also low-grade sources, i.e., renewable and industrial waste heat, which would otherwise be lost. In this chapter, a regional energy planning tool is described considered with various energy conversion systems based on renewable energy sources to be supplied to an integrated energy infrastructure involving a low-energy district heating, a district cooling, and an electricity grid. The developed tool is performed for two case studies, one being Greater Copenhagen Area and the other Greater Toronto Area, in accordance with various climate conditions and available resources in these locations, CO2 emission savings obtained with up to 880 and1,400 M tons, respectively.
|Title of host publication||Causes, Impacts and Solutions to Global Warming|
|Publication status||Published - 2013|