Recovery of Phosphorus and Metals from the Ash of Sewage Sludge, Municipal Solid Waste, or Wood Biomass: A Review and Proposals for Further Use

Sara Tominc*, Vilma Ducman, Wolfgang Wisniewski, Tero Luukkonen, Gunvor M. Kirkelund, Lisbeth M. Ottosen

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReviewpeer-review

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Abstract

This review provides an overview of methods to extract valuable resources from the ash fractions of sewage sludge, municipal solid waste, and wood biomass combustion. The resources addressed here include critical raw materials, such as phosphorus, base and precious metals, and rare earth elements for which it is increasingly important to tap into secondary sources in addition to the mining of primary raw materials. The extraction technologies prioritized in this review are based on recycled acids or excess renewable energy to achieve an optimum environmental profile for the extracted resources and provide benefits in the form of local industrial symbioses. The extraction methods cover all scarce and valuable chemical elements contained in the ashes above certain concentration limits. Another important part of this review is defining potential applications for the mineral residues remaining after extraction. Therefore, the aim of this review is to combine the knowledge of resource extraction technology from ashes with possible applications of mineral residues in construction and related sectors to fully close material cycle loops.
Original languageEnglish
Article number6948
JournalMaterials
Volume16
Issue number21
Number of pages18
ISSN1996-1944
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2023

Bibliographical note

This research was EU-funded by the ASHCYCLE project, Grant Number 101058162.

Keywords

  • Critical raw materials
  • Extraction
  • Sewage sludge ash
  • Municipal solid waste incineration ash
  • Wood biomass ash

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