To build transcription regulatory networks, transcription factor binding must be analyzed in cells grown under different conditions because their responses and targets differ depending on environmental conditions. We performed whole-genome analysis of the DNA binding of five Saccharomyces cerevisiae transcription factors involved in lipid metabolism, Ino2, Ino4, Hap1, Oaf1, and Pip2, in response to four different environmental conditions in chemostat cultures, which allowed us to keep the specific growth rate constant. Chromatin immunoprecipitation with lambda exonuclease digestion (ChIP-exo) enabled the detection of binding events at a high resolution. We discovered a large number of unidentified targets and thus expanded functions for each transcription factor (e.g., glutamate biosynthesis as a target of Oaf1 and Pip2). Moreover, condition-dependent binding of transcription factors in response to cell metabolic state (e.g., differential binding of Ino2 between fermentative and respiratory metabolic conditions) was clearly suggested. Combining the new binding data with previously published data from transcription factor deletion studies revealed the high complexity of the transcriptional regulatory network for lipid metabolism in yeast, which involves the combinatorial and complementary regulation by multiple transcription factors. We anticipate that our work will provide insights into transcription factor binding dynamics that will prove useful for the understanding of transcription regulatory networks. IMPORTANCE Transcription factors play a crucial role in the regulation of gene expression and adaptation to different environments. To better understand the underlying roles of these adaptations, we performed experiments that give us high-resolution binding of transcription factors to their targets. We investigated five transcription factors involved in lipid metabolism in yeast, and we discovered multiple novel targets and condition-specific responses that allow us to draw a better regulatory map of the lipid metabolism.
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- Transcriptional regulatory network
- Environmental response
- Lipid metabolic map
- Novel targets