Recent developments in automatic solid-phase extraction with renewable surfaces exploiting flow-based approaches

Manuel Miró, Supaporn Kradtap Hartwell, Jaroon Jakmunee, Kate Grudpan, Elo Harald Hansen

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Solid-phase extraction (SPE) is the most versatile sample-processing method for removal of interfering species and/or analyte enrichment. Although significant advances have been made over the past two decades in automating the entire analytical protocol involving SPE via flow-injection approaches,on-line SPE assays performed in permanent mode lack sufficient reliability as a consequence of progressively tighter packing of the bead reactor, contamination of the solid surfaces and potential leakage of functional moieties. This article overviews the current state-of-the-art of an appealing tool for overcoming the above shortcomings, so-called bead-injection (BI) analysis, based on automated renewal of the sorbent material per assay exploiting the various generations of flow-injection analysis. It addresses novel instrumental developments for implementing BI and a number of alternatives for online chemical-derivatization reactions, and it pinpoints the most common instrumental detection techniques utilized. We present and discuss in detail relevant environmental and bioanalytical applications reported in the past few years.
Original languageEnglish
JournalTRAC - Trends in Analytical Chemistry
Issue number9
Pages (from-to)749-761
Publication statusPublished - 2008


  • Bioanalysis
  • Bead injection
  • Chemical-derivatization reaction
  • Bioassay

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