With the inclusion of snakebite envenoming on the World Health Organization's list of Neglected Tropical Diseases, an incentive has been established to promote research and development effort in novel snakebite antivenom therapies. Various technological approaches are being pursued by different research groups, including the use of small molecule inhibitors against enzymatic toxins as well as peptide- and oligonucleotide-based aptamers and antibody-based biotherapeutics against both enzymatic and non-enzymatic toxins. In this article, the most recent advances in these fields are presented, and the advantages, disadvantages, and feasibility of using different toxin-neutralizing molecules are reviewed. Particular focus within small molecules is directed towards the inhibitors varespladib, batimastat, and marimastat, while in the field of antibody-based therapies, novel recombinant polyclonal plantivenom technology is discussed.
Bibliographical noteThis article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
- Next generation antivenom
- Phage display
- Recombinant antivenom
- Small molecule toxin inhibitors