Real-Time RFI Processor for Future Spaceborne Microwave Radiometers

Janne Lahtinen, Steen Savstrup Kristensen, Arhippa Kovanen, Kari Lehtinen, Josu Uusitalo, Sten Schmidl Sobjærg, Niels Skou, Salvatore D'Addio

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

Abstract

Anthropogenic radio frequency interference (RFI) within microwave radiometer bands is a serious problem in remote sensing. The problem is ever-increasing and thus, future spaceborne microwave radiometers will require efficient methods to mitigate the effects of RFI. In this paper, we present a solution: An RFI processor to detect and blank the RFI in real time. The processor was designed to be compatible with the 18.7-GHz channel of the Microwave Imager Instrument onboard the European MetOp Second Generation satellite system. The RFI processor developed here applies the following complementary detection algorithms: 1) anomalous amplitude detection; 2) kurtosis; and 3) two different cross-frequency algorithms. In the processing, the data are divided into subsamples with fine temporal and frequency resolution. The RFI processor detects and filters out RFI with this fine resolution in real time and then integrates the clean (noncontaminated) subsamples over time and frequency. Thus, a cleaned version of the radiometer data can be downlinked at a traditional low data rate. The processing is implemented in a reprogrammable field programmable gate array with high processing capacity, which provides high flexibility. The processing bandwidth that is applied is 200 MHz (+ 25-MHz transition bands on both sides). The detection limits of the system vary between various kinds of RFI but are in line with simulations. The power consumption of the RFI processor is ∼12 W (at room temperature), and its mass is ∼1.1 kg.

Original languageEnglish
JournalIEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing
Volume12
Issue number6
Pages (from-to)1658-1669
ISSN1939-1404
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2019

Keywords

  • Interference suppression
  • Radiometry
  • Remote sensing
  • Signal analysis
  • Signal processing

Cite this

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title = "Real-Time RFI Processor for Future Spaceborne Microwave Radiometers",
abstract = "Anthropogenic radio frequency interference (RFI) within microwave radiometer bands is a serious problem in remote sensing. The problem is ever-increasing and thus, future spaceborne microwave radiometers will require efficient methods to mitigate the effects of RFI. In this paper, we present a solution: An RFI processor to detect and blank the RFI in real time. The processor was designed to be compatible with the 18.7-GHz channel of the Microwave Imager Instrument onboard the European MetOp Second Generation satellite system. The RFI processor developed here applies the following complementary detection algorithms: 1) anomalous amplitude detection; 2) kurtosis; and 3) two different cross-frequency algorithms. In the processing, the data are divided into subsamples with fine temporal and frequency resolution. The RFI processor detects and filters out RFI with this fine resolution in real time and then integrates the clean (noncontaminated) subsamples over time and frequency. Thus, a cleaned version of the radiometer data can be downlinked at a traditional low data rate. The processing is implemented in a reprogrammable field programmable gate array with high processing capacity, which provides high flexibility. The processing bandwidth that is applied is 200 MHz (+ 25-MHz transition bands on both sides). The detection limits of the system vary between various kinds of RFI but are in line with simulations. The power consumption of the RFI processor is ∼12 W (at room temperature), and its mass is ∼1.1 kg.",
keywords = "Interference suppression, Radiometry, Remote sensing, Signal analysis, Signal processing",
author = "Janne Lahtinen and Kristensen, {Steen Savstrup} and Arhippa Kovanen and Kari Lehtinen and Josu Uusitalo and {Schmidl Sobj{\ae}rg}, Sten and Niels Skou and Salvatore D'Addio",
year = "2019",
doi = "10.1109/JSTARS.2019.2910640",
language = "English",
volume = "12",
pages = "1658--1669",
journal = "I E E E Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing",
issn = "1939-1404",
publisher = "Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers",
number = "6",

}

Real-Time RFI Processor for Future Spaceborne Microwave Radiometers. / Lahtinen, Janne; Kristensen, Steen Savstrup; Kovanen, Arhippa; Lehtinen, Kari; Uusitalo, Josu; Schmidl Sobjærg, Sten; Skou, Niels; D'Addio, Salvatore.

In: IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing, Vol. 12, No. 6, 2019, p. 1658-1669.

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Real-Time RFI Processor for Future Spaceborne Microwave Radiometers

AU - Lahtinen, Janne

AU - Kristensen, Steen Savstrup

AU - Kovanen, Arhippa

AU - Lehtinen, Kari

AU - Uusitalo, Josu

AU - Schmidl Sobjærg, Sten

AU - Skou, Niels

AU - D'Addio, Salvatore

PY - 2019

Y1 - 2019

N2 - Anthropogenic radio frequency interference (RFI) within microwave radiometer bands is a serious problem in remote sensing. The problem is ever-increasing and thus, future spaceborne microwave radiometers will require efficient methods to mitigate the effects of RFI. In this paper, we present a solution: An RFI processor to detect and blank the RFI in real time. The processor was designed to be compatible with the 18.7-GHz channel of the Microwave Imager Instrument onboard the European MetOp Second Generation satellite system. The RFI processor developed here applies the following complementary detection algorithms: 1) anomalous amplitude detection; 2) kurtosis; and 3) two different cross-frequency algorithms. In the processing, the data are divided into subsamples with fine temporal and frequency resolution. The RFI processor detects and filters out RFI with this fine resolution in real time and then integrates the clean (noncontaminated) subsamples over time and frequency. Thus, a cleaned version of the radiometer data can be downlinked at a traditional low data rate. The processing is implemented in a reprogrammable field programmable gate array with high processing capacity, which provides high flexibility. The processing bandwidth that is applied is 200 MHz (+ 25-MHz transition bands on both sides). The detection limits of the system vary between various kinds of RFI but are in line with simulations. The power consumption of the RFI processor is ∼12 W (at room temperature), and its mass is ∼1.1 kg.

AB - Anthropogenic radio frequency interference (RFI) within microwave radiometer bands is a serious problem in remote sensing. The problem is ever-increasing and thus, future spaceborne microwave radiometers will require efficient methods to mitigate the effects of RFI. In this paper, we present a solution: An RFI processor to detect and blank the RFI in real time. The processor was designed to be compatible with the 18.7-GHz channel of the Microwave Imager Instrument onboard the European MetOp Second Generation satellite system. The RFI processor developed here applies the following complementary detection algorithms: 1) anomalous amplitude detection; 2) kurtosis; and 3) two different cross-frequency algorithms. In the processing, the data are divided into subsamples with fine temporal and frequency resolution. The RFI processor detects and filters out RFI with this fine resolution in real time and then integrates the clean (noncontaminated) subsamples over time and frequency. Thus, a cleaned version of the radiometer data can be downlinked at a traditional low data rate. The processing is implemented in a reprogrammable field programmable gate array with high processing capacity, which provides high flexibility. The processing bandwidth that is applied is 200 MHz (+ 25-MHz transition bands on both sides). The detection limits of the system vary between various kinds of RFI but are in line with simulations. The power consumption of the RFI processor is ∼12 W (at room temperature), and its mass is ∼1.1 kg.

KW - Interference suppression

KW - Radiometry

KW - Remote sensing

KW - Signal analysis

KW - Signal processing

U2 - 10.1109/JSTARS.2019.2910640

DO - 10.1109/JSTARS.2019.2910640

M3 - Journal article

AN - SCOPUS:85069535526

VL - 12

SP - 1658

EP - 1669

JO - I E E E Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing

JF - I E E E Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing

SN - 1939-1404

IS - 6

ER -