In addition to the day-ahead congestion management in distribution networks, the real-time congestion management is very important because many unforeseen events can occur at the real operation time, e.g. loss of generation of distributed energy resources (DERs) or inaccurate forecast of energy consumption or production. Flexibility service from demand will be a good option to solve the real-time congestions if the cost of activating the flexibility service is fully addressed. This paper proposes a new method, namely “swap”, to employ the flexibility service from electric vehicles (EVs) and heat pumps (HPs) for real time congestion management. The swap method can maintain the power balance of the system and avoid the imbalance cost of activating the flexibility service. An algorithm for forming swaps through optimal power flow (OPF) and mixed integer linear programming (MILP) is proposed to implement the swap method. Case studies were carried out to validate the efficacy of the proposed swap method for real time congestion management and the proposed algorithm for forming swaps. The settlement process for the swaps in different markets is analyzed.
- Congestion management
- Distributed energy resources (DERs)
- Distribution system operator (DSO),
- Electric Vehicles (EVs)
- Flexibility service
- Heat pumps (HPs)
Huang, S., & Wu, Q. (2017). Real-Time Congestion Management in Distribution Networks by Flexible Demand Swap. IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid, 9(5), 4346 - 4355. https://doi.org/10.1109/TSG.2017.2655085