Echocardiography examination of the blood flow is currently either restricted to 1-D techniques in real-time or experimental off-line 2-D methods. This paper presents an implementation of transverse oscillation for real-time 2-D vector flow imaging (VFI) on a commercial BK Ultrasound scanner. A large field-of-view (FOV) sequence for studying flow dynamics at 11 frames per second (fps) and a sequence for studying peak systolic velocities (PSV) with a narrow FOV at 36 fps were validated. The VFI sequences were validated in a flow-rig with continuous laminar parabolic flow and in a pulsating flow pump system before being tested in vivo, where measurements were obtained on two healthy volunteers. Mean PSV from 11 cycles was 155 cm s−1 with a precision of ± 9.0% for the pulsating flow pump. In vivo, PSV estimated in the ascending aorta was 135 cm s−1 ± 16.9% for 8 cardiac cycles. Furthermore, in vivo flow dynamics of the left ventricle and in the ascending aorta were visualized. In conclusion, angle independent 2-D VFI on a phased array has been implemented in real-time, and it is capable of providing quantitative and qualitative flow evaluations of both complex and fully transverse flow.
|Journal||IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics and Frequency Control|
|Publication status||Published - 2018|