Real-life use of vitamin D3-fortified bread and milk during a winter season: the effects of CYP2R1 and GC genes on 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations in Danish families, the VitmaD study.
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Common genetic variants rs10741657 and rs10766197 in CYP2R1 and rs4588 and rs842999 in GC and a combined genetic risk score (GRS) of these four variants influence late summer 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations. The objectives were to identify those who are most at risk of developing low vitamin D status during winter and to assess whether vitamin D3-fortified bread and milk will increase 25(OH)D concentrations in those with genetically determined low 25(OH)D concentrations at late summer. We used data from the VitmaD study. Participants were allocated to either vitamin D3-fortified bread and milk or non-fortified bread and milk during winter. In the fortification group, CYP2R1 (rs10741657) and GC (rs4588 and rs842999) were statistically significantly associated with winter 25(OH)D concentrations and CYP2R1 (rs10766197) was borderline significant. There was a negative linear trend between 25(OH)D concentrations and carriage of 0-8 risk alleles (p <0.0001). No association was found for the control group (p = 0.1428). There was a significant positive linear relationship between different quintiles of total vitamin D intake and the increase in 25(OH)D concentrations among carriers of 0-2 (p = 0.0012), 3 (p = 0.0001), 4 (p = 0.0118) or 5 (p = 0.0029) risk alleles, but not among carriers of 6-8 risk alleles (p = 0.1051). Carriers of a high GRS were more prone to be vitamin D deficient compared to carriers of a low GRS. Furthermore, rs4588-AA carriers have a low but very stable 25(OH)D concentration, and interestingly, also low PTH level.