Rate-Adaptive Concatenated Multi-Level Coding With Novel Probabilistic Amplitude Shaping

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This paper proposes a new probabilistic amplitude shaping (PAS) approach for concatenated two-level multi-level coding (MLC). The proposed system is based on a concatenated forward error correction (FEC) scheme where outer codes are serially concatenated with inner two-level MLC. This concatenated two-level MLC scheme has recently been shown to have a potential for achieving better performance-complexity trade-offs than the conventional bit-interleaved coded modulation (BICM). Meanwhile, PAS has recently been demonstrated to offer remarkable performance gains as well as rate adaptivity. However, the majority of existing works on PAS assume the use of the binary reflected Gray code as a bit-labeling, and its application to coded modulation schemes with other bit-labelings, such as two-level MLC, may not be straightforward. In this paper, we devise a bit-labeling scheme and propose a new PAS structure for an efficient integration of PAS with two-level MLC systems. More specifically, we propose to generate <italic>signed</italic> amplitude symbols with the distribution matcher (DM) for maximizing both coding and shaping gains achieved by two-level MLC and PAS, respectively, while the conventional PAS generates <italic>unsigned</italic> amplitude symbols. It is demonstrated by simulation results that, with 256QAM and inner polar codes, the proposed two-level MLC with PAS simultaneously offers 75&#x0025; reduction in the number of required inner encoding and soft-decision (SD) decoding operations for given outer and inner FEC code lengths, and up to 0.3 dB performance gain over the conventional PAS scheme.
Original languageEnglish
Article number9741724
JournalIEEE Transactions on Communications
Issue number5
Pages (from-to)2977-2991
Publication statusPublished - 1 May 2022


  • Codes
  • Decoding
  • Forward error correction
  • Modulation
  • Encoding
  • Complexity theory
  • Reliability


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