Random wave-induced momentary liquefaction around rubble mound breakwaters with submerged berms

Daniele Celli*, Yuzhu Li*, Muk Chen Ong*, Marcello Di Risio*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

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The effects of submerged berms in attenuating the momentary liquefaction beneath rubble mound breakwaters under regular waves were investigated in a recent study. The present work aims to investigate the momentary liquefaction probabilities around and beneath breakwaters with submerged berms under random waves. The interaction between waves and breakwaters with submerged berms has been simulated through a phase-resolving numerical model. The soil response to the seabed pressure induced by random waves has been investigated using a poro-elastic soil solver. For three different breakwater configurations, the liquefaction depths under random wave conditions have been compared with those cases under representative regular waves. In the present study, the offshore spectral wave height (Hm0) and the peak period (Tp) of irregular waves are used as representative regular wave parameters. Results reveal the importance of considering random waves for a safe estimation of the momentary liquefaction probability. Indication about the minimum number of random waves, which is required to properly catch the liquefaction occurrences, has been also addressed.

Original languageEnglish
Article number338
JournalJournal of Marine Science and Engineering
Issue number5
Number of pages16
Publication statusPublished - 2020

Bibliographical note

Copyright; 2020 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).


  • Berm
  • Breakwaters
  • Momentary liquefaction
  • Numerical models
  • Random waves

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