### Abstract

This PhD thesis treats applications of nonlinear optical effects for quantum information
processing. The two main applications are four-wave mixing in the form
of Bragg scattering (BS) for quantum-state-preserving frequency conversion, and
sum-frequency generation (SFG) in second-order nonlinear materials for heralded
entanglement.

BS is shown to be separable in the input and output modes in the low-conversion regime, the regime of small pump powers or short interaction times. The selective frequency conversion of a signal is found to only depend on one of the pumps, while the temporal output of the converted idler depends on the other pump. This allows for temporal-mode-multiplexing. When the effects of nonlinear phase modulation (NPM) are included, the phases of the natural input and output modes are changed, reducing the separability. These effects are to some degree mediated by pre-chirping the pumps.

In the high-conversion regime without the effects of NPM, exact Green functions for BS are derived. In this limit, separability is possible for conversion efficiencies up to 60 %. However, the system still allows for selective frequency conversion as well as re-shaping of the output. One way to obtain a 100 % conversion efficiency is to use multiple stages of frequency conversion, but this setup suffers from the combined effects of NPM. This problem is circumvented by using asymmetrically pumped BS, where one pump is continuous wave. For this setup, NPM is found to only lead to linear phase shifts of the input and output modes, corresponding to shifts of the central frequencies of the fields. The trade-off is that one is only able to select which signals are converted, or change the shape of the output idler.

Finally, entanglement swapping using SFG was investigated. Considering two pairs of entangled photons, the process of up-converting one photon from each pair leads to heralded entangled pairs by successful detection of the up-converted photon. It was seen that this was indeed possible in the case of anti-correlated phasematching in the up-conversion crystal. Possible ways of increasing the probability of an up-conversion event were investigated briefly.

BS is shown to be separable in the input and output modes in the low-conversion regime, the regime of small pump powers or short interaction times. The selective frequency conversion of a signal is found to only depend on one of the pumps, while the temporal output of the converted idler depends on the other pump. This allows for temporal-mode-multiplexing. When the effects of nonlinear phase modulation (NPM) are included, the phases of the natural input and output modes are changed, reducing the separability. These effects are to some degree mediated by pre-chirping the pumps.

In the high-conversion regime without the effects of NPM, exact Green functions for BS are derived. In this limit, separability is possible for conversion efficiencies up to 60 %. However, the system still allows for selective frequency conversion as well as re-shaping of the output. One way to obtain a 100 % conversion efficiency is to use multiple stages of frequency conversion, but this setup suffers from the combined effects of NPM. This problem is circumvented by using asymmetrically pumped BS, where one pump is continuous wave. For this setup, NPM is found to only lead to linear phase shifts of the input and output modes, corresponding to shifts of the central frequencies of the fields. The trade-off is that one is only able to select which signals are converted, or change the shape of the output idler.

Finally, entanglement swapping using SFG was investigated. Considering two pairs of entangled photons, the process of up-converting one photon from each pair leads to heralded entangled pairs by successful detection of the up-converted photon. It was seen that this was indeed possible in the case of anti-correlated phasematching in the up-conversion crystal. Possible ways of increasing the probability of an up-conversion event were investigated briefly.

Original language | English |
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Place of Publication | Kgs. Lyngby |
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Publisher | Technical University of Denmark |

Number of pages | 258 |

Publication status | Published - 2014 |

## Cite this

Andersen, L. M. (2014).

*Quantum Information Processing using Nonlinear Optical Effects*. Technical University of Denmark.