A simple one-dimensional differential equation in the centerline coordinate of an arbitrarily curved quantum waveguide with a varying cross section is derived using a combination of differential geometry and perturbation theory. The model can tackle curved quantum waveguides with a cross-sectional shape and dimensions that vary along the axis. The present analysis generalizes previous models that are restricted to either straight waveguides with a varying cross-section or curved waveguides, where the shape and dimensions of the cross section are fixed. We carry out full 2D wave simulations on a number of complex waveguide geometries and demonstrate excellent agreement with the eigenstates and energies obtained using our present 1D model. It is shown that the computational benefit in using the present 1D model to calculate both 2D and 3D wave solutions is significant and allows for the fast optimization of complex quantum waveguide design. The derived 1D model renders direct access as to how quantum waveguide eigenstates depend on varying cross-sectional dimensions, the waveguide curvature, and rotation of the cross-sectional frame. In particular, a gauge transformation reveals that the individual effects of curvature, thickness variation, and frame rotation correspond to separate terms in a geometric potential only. Generalization of the present formalism to electromagnetics and acoustics, accounting appropriately for the relevant boundary conditions, is anticipated.
- Quantum eigenstates
- Varying cross section
- Effective analytical and numerical methods