Quantized fluctuational electrodynamics for three-dimensional plasmonic structures

Mikko Partanen, Teppo Häyrynen, Jukka Tulkki, Jani Oksanen

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We recently introduced a quantized fluctuational electrodynamics (QFED) formalism that provides a physically insightful definition of an effective position-dependent photon-number operator and the associated ladder operators. However, this far the formalism has been applicable only for the normal incidence of the electromagnetic field in planar structures. In this work, we overcome the main limitation of the one-dimensional QFED formalism by extending the model to three dimensions, allowing us to use the QFED method to study, e.g., plasmonic structures. To demonstrate the benefits of the developed formalism, we apply it to study the local steady-state photon numbers and field temperatures in a light-emitting near-surface InGaN quantum-well structure with a metallic coating supporting surface plasmons.
Original languageEnglish
Article number013848
JournalPhysical Review B
Issue number1
Number of pages14
Publication statusPublished - 2017


  • Quantum optics
  • Collective excitations (surface states)
  • Optical properties of II-VI and III-V semiconductors (thin films, low-dimensional and nanoscale structures)
  • gallium compounds
  • III-V semiconductors
  • indium compounds
  • plasmonics
  • quantum optics
  • semiconductor quantum wells
  • surface plasmons
  • wide band gap semiconductors
  • metallic coating
  • light-emitting near-surface quantum-well structure
  • field temperatures
  • local steady-state photon numbers
  • ladder operators
  • position-dependent photon-number operator
  • three-dimensional plasmonic structures
  • quantized fluctuational electrodynamics
  • InGaN

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