Quantitative monitoring of yeast fermentation using Raman spectroscopy

Jens A. Iversen, Rolf W. Berg, Birgitte K. Ahring

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review


Compared to traditional IR methods, Raman spectroscopy has the advantage of only minimal interference from water when measuring aqueous samples, which makes this method potentially useful for in situ monitoring of important industrial bioprocesses. This study demonstrates real-time monitoring of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation process using a Raman spectroscopy instrument equipped with a robust sapphire ball probe.A method was developed to correct the Raman signal for the attenuation caused by light scattering cell particulate, hence enabling quantification of reaction components and possibly measurement of yeast cell concentrations. Extinction of Raman intensities to more than 50 % during fermentation was normalized with approximated extinction expressions using Raman signal of water around 1,627 cm−1 as internal standard to correct for the effect of scattering. Complicated standard multi-variant chemometric techniques, such as PLS, were avoided in the quantification model, as an attempt to keep the monitoring method as simple as possible and still get satisfactory estimations. Instead, estimations were made with a two-step approach, where initial scattering correction of attenuated signals was followed by linear regression. In situ quantification measurements of the fermentation resulted in root mean square errors of prediction (RMSEP) of 2.357, 1.611, and 0.633 g/L for glucose, ethanol, and yeast concentrations, respectively.
Original languageEnglish
JournalAnalytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Issue number20
Pages (from-to)4911-4919
Publication statusPublished - 2014


  • Raman spectroscopy
  • Sapphire ball probe
  • On-line monitoring
  • Yeast fermentation
  • Quantitative analysis
  • Scattering correction


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