Puncture of an import gasoline pipeline – spray effects may evaporate more fuel than a Buncefield-type tank overfill event

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Puncture of an import gasoline pipeline – spray effects may evaporate more fuel than a Buncefield-type tank overfill event. / Hedlund, Frank Huess; Pedersen, Jan Boier; Sin, Gürkan; Garde, Frits G.; Kragh, Eva K.; Frutiger, Jérôme.

In: Process Safety and Environmental Protection, Vol. 122, 2019, p. 33–47.

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal article – Annual report year: 2018Researchpeer-review

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@article{b70e50b2a6fd4b9a9b3a52a0d38686bf,
title = "Puncture of an import gasoline pipeline – spray effects may evaporate more fuel than a Buncefield-type tank overfill event",
abstract = "This paper is concerned with evaporation of moderately volatile liquids, gasoline in particular, due to spray generation, liquid fragmentation and fountain effects following accidental puncture of a pressurized pipeline. Hazard analysis predicts that extensive evaporation will take place. The paper examines a typical fuel depot receiving gasoline from a ship at a nearby port via an above-ground pipeline. For comparative purposes, two types of accidental release during import are considered: 1) The receiving tank overflows in a worst-case Buncefield-type event (baseline). 2) The import pipeline is punctured and a jet of liquid discharges upwards. The paper examines pipeline import of three substances, hexane, octane and winter gasoline. Hazard analysis using the PHAST software suite indicates that the amount of fuel evaporated from the pipeline puncture scenarios greatly exceeds the amount evaporated in a tank overfill event for all three substances, gasoline in particular. Proper modelling of evaporation of wide-range multi-component mixtures such as gasoline is challenging however. PHAST's simplified thermodynamic modelling of properties of mixtures may be a source of error. A PHAST-based stand-alone spray evaporation model with advanced thermodynamic capability is developed. Results indicate that PHAST does indeed overestimate evaporation of mixtures. Still, model output shows that evaporation following pipeline puncture may exceed the evaporation from a Buncefield-type tank overfill event by a factor of two or more. This finding is significant as evaporation from pipeline puncture scenarios appear largely overlooked in hazard analysis. The finding may lead to a fundamental re-appraisal of the hazard potential of fuel depots and pipelines.",
keywords = "Major accident hazard, Onshore pipelines, Spray release, Consequence models, Fuel depot, Worst design event",
author = "Hedlund, {Frank Huess} and Pedersen, {Jan Boier} and G{\"u}rkan Sin and Garde, {Frits G.} and Kragh, {Eva K.} and J{\'e}r{\^o}me Frutiger",
year = "2019",
doi = "10.1016/j.psep.2018.11.007",
language = "English",
volume = "122",
pages = "33–47",
journal = "Process Safety and Environmental Protection",
issn = "0957-5820",
publisher = "Elsevier Ltd",

}

RIS

TY - JOUR

T1 - Puncture of an import gasoline pipeline – spray effects may evaporate more fuel than a Buncefield-type tank overfill event

AU - Hedlund, Frank Huess

AU - Pedersen, Jan Boier

AU - Sin, Gürkan

AU - Garde, Frits G.

AU - Kragh, Eva K.

AU - Frutiger, Jérôme

PY - 2019

Y1 - 2019

N2 - This paper is concerned with evaporation of moderately volatile liquids, gasoline in particular, due to spray generation, liquid fragmentation and fountain effects following accidental puncture of a pressurized pipeline. Hazard analysis predicts that extensive evaporation will take place. The paper examines a typical fuel depot receiving gasoline from a ship at a nearby port via an above-ground pipeline. For comparative purposes, two types of accidental release during import are considered: 1) The receiving tank overflows in a worst-case Buncefield-type event (baseline). 2) The import pipeline is punctured and a jet of liquid discharges upwards. The paper examines pipeline import of three substances, hexane, octane and winter gasoline. Hazard analysis using the PHAST software suite indicates that the amount of fuel evaporated from the pipeline puncture scenarios greatly exceeds the amount evaporated in a tank overfill event for all three substances, gasoline in particular. Proper modelling of evaporation of wide-range multi-component mixtures such as gasoline is challenging however. PHAST's simplified thermodynamic modelling of properties of mixtures may be a source of error. A PHAST-based stand-alone spray evaporation model with advanced thermodynamic capability is developed. Results indicate that PHAST does indeed overestimate evaporation of mixtures. Still, model output shows that evaporation following pipeline puncture may exceed the evaporation from a Buncefield-type tank overfill event by a factor of two or more. This finding is significant as evaporation from pipeline puncture scenarios appear largely overlooked in hazard analysis. The finding may lead to a fundamental re-appraisal of the hazard potential of fuel depots and pipelines.

AB - This paper is concerned with evaporation of moderately volatile liquids, gasoline in particular, due to spray generation, liquid fragmentation and fountain effects following accidental puncture of a pressurized pipeline. Hazard analysis predicts that extensive evaporation will take place. The paper examines a typical fuel depot receiving gasoline from a ship at a nearby port via an above-ground pipeline. For comparative purposes, two types of accidental release during import are considered: 1) The receiving tank overflows in a worst-case Buncefield-type event (baseline). 2) The import pipeline is punctured and a jet of liquid discharges upwards. The paper examines pipeline import of three substances, hexane, octane and winter gasoline. Hazard analysis using the PHAST software suite indicates that the amount of fuel evaporated from the pipeline puncture scenarios greatly exceeds the amount evaporated in a tank overfill event for all three substances, gasoline in particular. Proper modelling of evaporation of wide-range multi-component mixtures such as gasoline is challenging however. PHAST's simplified thermodynamic modelling of properties of mixtures may be a source of error. A PHAST-based stand-alone spray evaporation model with advanced thermodynamic capability is developed. Results indicate that PHAST does indeed overestimate evaporation of mixtures. Still, model output shows that evaporation following pipeline puncture may exceed the evaporation from a Buncefield-type tank overfill event by a factor of two or more. This finding is significant as evaporation from pipeline puncture scenarios appear largely overlooked in hazard analysis. The finding may lead to a fundamental re-appraisal of the hazard potential of fuel depots and pipelines.

KW - Major accident hazard

KW - Onshore pipelines

KW - Spray release

KW - Consequence models

KW - Fuel depot

KW - Worst design event

U2 - 10.1016/j.psep.2018.11.007

DO - 10.1016/j.psep.2018.11.007

M3 - Journal article

VL - 122

SP - 33

EP - 47

JO - Process Safety and Environmental Protection

JF - Process Safety and Environmental Protection

SN - 0957-5820

ER -