Pulmonary response to surface‐coated nanotitanium dioxide particles includes induction of acute phase response genes, inflammatory cascades, and changes in microRNAs: A toxicogenomic study

Sabina Halappanavar, Petra Jackson, Andrew Williams, Keld A. Jensen, Karin S. Hougaard, Ulla Birgitte Vogel, Carole L. Yauk, Håkan Wallin

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

Abstract

Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (nanoTiO2) are used in various applications including in paints. NanoTiO2 inhalation may induce pulmonary toxicity and systemic effects. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. In this study, the effects of inhaled surface‐coated nanoTiO2 on pulmonary global messenger RNA (mRNA) and microRNA (miRNA) expression in mouse were characterized to provide insight into the molecular response. Female C57BL/6BomTac mice were exposed for 1 hr daily to 42.4 ± 2.9 (SEM) mg surface‐coated nanoTiO2/m3 for 11 consecutive days by inhalation and were sacrificed 5 days following the last exposure. Physicochemical properties of the particles were determined. Pulmonary response to nanoTiO2 was characterized using DNA microarrays and pathway‐specific PCR arrays and related to data on pulmonary inflammation from bronchial lavages. NanoTiO2 exposure resulted in increased levels of mRNA for acute phase markers serum amyloid A‐1 (Saa1) and serum amyloid A‐3 (Saa3), several C‐X‐C and C‐C motif chemokines, and cytokine tumor necrosis factor genes. Protein analysis of Saa1 and 3 showed selective upregulation of Saa3 in lung tissues. Sixteen miRNAs were induced by more than 1.2‐fold (adjusted P‐value <0.05) following exposure. Real time polymerase chain reaction confirmed the upregulation of miR‐1, miR‐449a and revealed dramatic induction of miR‐135b (60‐fold). Thus, inhalation of surface‐coated nanoTiO2 results in changes in the expression of genes associated with acute phase, inflammation and immune response 5 days post exposure with concomitant changes in several miRNAs. The role of these miRNAs in pulmonary response to inhaled particles is unknown and warrants further research. Environ. Mol. Mutagen., 2011. © 2011 Wiley‐Liss, Inc.
Original languageEnglish
JournalEnvironmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
Volume52
Issue number6
Pages (from-to)425-439
ISSN0893-6692
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2011

Keywords

  • Gene expression
  • MicroRNA
  • Nanotitanium dioxide
  • Inflammation

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