Background: It is unknown which metabolites are responsible for propylene glycol (PG)-induced toxicosis, and a better understanding of the underlying mechanisms explaining incidences of abnormal behaviour of dairy cows fed PG is therefore needed. Methods: The study included three cows of which one developed PG toxicosis. In order to investigate how the metabolism of PG differed in the cow developing toxicosis, proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy was applied on ruminal fluids and blood plasma samples obtained before and after feeding with PG. Results: PG toxicosis was characterized by dyspnea and ruminal atony upon intake of concentrate containing PG. The oxygen saturation of arterial blood haemoglobin and the oxygen pressure in arterial blood decreased along with the appearance of the clinical symptoms. NMR revealed differences in plasma and ruminal content of several metabolites between the cow responding abnormally to PG and the two control cows. Conclusion: It is concluded that PG-toxicosis is likely caused by pulmonary vasoconstriction, but no unusual metabolites directly related to induction of this condition could be detected in the plasma or the ruminal fluid.