Albumins and globulins from the endosperm of Triticum aestivum L. cv Chinese Spring (CS) were analysed to establish a proteome reference map for this standard wheat cultivar. Approximately, 1,145 Coomassie-stained spots were detected by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE), 410 of which were identified using mass spectrometry and data mining. Salt-soluble endosperm proteins from 67 CS deletion lines were also separated by 2DE (four gels per line). Image analysis of the 268 2DE gels as compared to the CS reference proteome allowed the detection of qualitative and quantitative variations in endosperm proteins due to chromosomal deletions. This differential analysis of spots allowed structural or regulatory genes, encoding 211 proteins, to be located on segments of the 21 wheat chromosomes. In addition, variance analysis of quantitative variations in spot volume showed that the expression of 391 proteins is controlled by one or more chromosome bins with 262 significant increases and 196 significant decreases in spot volume. The spot volume of several proteins was increased or decreased by numerous chromosomal regions and homoeologous-like regulation was revealed for some proteins. Quantitative or qualitative variation in a total of 386 proteins was influenced by genes assigned to at least one chromosomal region, while 66 % of all stained proteins were not found to be influenced by chromosome bins. Proteomics of deletion lines can, therefore, be used to simultaneously analyse the composition and genetics of a complex tissue, such as the wheat endosperm.