The search for microorganisms able to produce thermostable xylanases with high yield and characteristics desired for industrial applications has been strongly encouraged since such enzymes are widely used in large-scale processes. In the present study, thermophilic fungal strains able to grow at high temperatures (≥55 °C) were isolated from maize silage. The strains were molecularly identified and used for the production of extracellular xylanase by solid-state fermentation using corn cobs as support-substrate material. Species from the genera Rhizomucor and Aspergillus were identified among the isolated strains and these species demonstrated good ability to produce xylanase under solid-state fermentation conditions. Maximal values of enzymatic activity (824 U/g) and productivity (8.59 U/g.h) were obtained with Rh. pusillus SOC-4A (values per g dry weight of fermented medium). The xylanase produced by this fungus presented thermal stability at 75 °C, with maximum activity at 70 °C and pH 6.0, revealing, therefore, great potential for application in different areas.