Processing factors of pesticide residues in biscuits and their relation to the physicochemical properties of pesticides

Elena Hakme*, Susan Strange Herrmann, Mette Erecius Poulsen

*Corresponding author for this work

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Agricultural commodities are generally consumed as processed food. Therefore, it is indispensable to assess pesticide residues in processed products rather than only in the raw agricultural commodity, in order to approach a more realistic scenario of dietary exposure. Processing factors are important tools for dietary exposure risk assessments. In this study, processing factors for the baking process were derived for 41 pesticides in cereal bran-based biscuits. The raw materials used consisted of wheat, rye, oat, and barley grains with incurred pesticides, which originally was produced for test material for European Union Proficiency Tests. Information on physicochemical properties of pesticides was collected for understanding the fate of pesticides during the baking process. Average processing factors varied between 0.67 and 1.6. Most pesticide residues exhibited a reduction of pesticide residues of less than 24%, which correspond to a processing factor (PF) range between 1 and 0.76, showing resistance to the baking process. However, for polar compounds such as carbendazim and volatile compounds (chlorpyrifos-methyl, malathion, and pirimiphos-methyl) larger reduction rates were observed, up to 33% (PF: 0.67). In general, a prolonged baking time did not significantly affect the PF, because the main degradation process takes place within the first 6 min. However, this was not the case for the highly volatile compounds, highly polar compounds, and compounds of low degradation temperature. These latter were significantly reduced with prolonged baking time, resulting in a reduction rate of up to 95%, which means an almost complete elimination.

Original languageEnglish
JournalFood Additives & Contaminants: Part A - Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
Issue number10
Pages (from-to)1695-1706
Publication statusPublished - 2020


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