Probe development of CMUT and PZT row-column-addressed 2-D arrays

Mathias Engholm*, Hamed Bouzari, Thomas Lehrmann Christiansen, Christopher Beers, Jan Peter Bagge, Lars Nordahl Moesner, Søren Elmin Diederichsen, Matthias Bo Stuart, Jørgen Arendt Jensen, Erik Vilain Thomsen

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

Abstract

This paper presents the characterization of two prototyped fully integrated 62 + 62 row-column-addressed (RCA) 2-D transducer array probes, which are based on capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducer (CMUT) and on piezoelectric transducer (PZT) technology, respectively. Both transducers have integrated apodization to reduce ghost echoes and were designed with similar acoustical features i.e. 3 MHz center frequency, λ/2-pitch and 24.8 mm2  × 24.8 mm2 active footprint. The transducer arrays were assembled in a 3-D printed probe handle with electromagnetic shield and integrated electronics for driving the 128-channel coaxial cable to the scanner. The electronics were designed to allow all elements, both rows and columns, to be used interchangeably as either transmitters or receivers. The transducer characterization i.e. bandwidth, phase delay, surface pressure, sensitivity, insertion loss, and acoustical crosstalk, were based on several single element measurements, including pressure and pulse-echo, and were evaluated quantitatively and comparatively. The weighted center frequency was 3.0 MHz for both probes and the measured -6 dB fractional bandwidth was 109 ± 4% and 80 ± 3% for the CMUT and the PZT probe, respectively. The surface pressures of the CMUT and PZT were 0.55 ± 0.06 MPa and 1.68 ± 0.09 MPa, respectively, and the receive sensitivities of the rows (receiving elements) were 12.9 ± 0.7 μV/Pa and 13.7 ± 2.1 μV/Pa.
Original languageEnglish
JournalSensors and Actuators A: Physical
Volume273
Pages (from-to)121-133
ISSN0924-4247
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2018

Keywords

  • CMUT
  • PZT
  • Row–column-addressing
  • Ultrasound
  • Volumetric imaging

Cite this

Engholm, Mathias ; Bouzari, Hamed ; Christiansen, Thomas Lehrmann ; Beers, Christopher ; Bagge, Jan Peter ; Moesner, Lars Nordahl ; Diederichsen, Søren Elmin ; Stuart, Matthias Bo ; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt ; Thomsen, Erik Vilain. / Probe development of CMUT and PZT row-column-addressed 2-D arrays. In: Sensors and Actuators A: Physical. 2018 ; Vol. 273. pp. 121-133.
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title = "Probe development of CMUT and PZT row-column-addressed 2-D arrays",
abstract = "This paper presents the characterization of two prototyped fully integrated 62 + 62 row-column-addressed (RCA) 2-D transducer array probes, which are based on capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducer (CMUT) and on piezoelectric transducer (PZT) technology, respectively. Both transducers have integrated apodization to reduce ghost echoes and were designed with similar acoustical features i.e. 3 MHz center frequency, λ/2-pitch and 24.8 mm2  × 24.8 mm2 active footprint. The transducer arrays were assembled in a 3-D printed probe handle with electromagnetic shield and integrated electronics for driving the 128-channel coaxial cable to the scanner. The electronics were designed to allow all elements, both rows and columns, to be used interchangeably as either transmitters or receivers. The transducer characterization i.e. bandwidth, phase delay, surface pressure, sensitivity, insertion loss, and acoustical crosstalk, were based on several single element measurements, including pressure and pulse-echo, and were evaluated quantitatively and comparatively. The weighted center frequency was 3.0 MHz for both probes and the measured -6 dB fractional bandwidth was 109 ± 4{\%} and 80 ± 3{\%} for the CMUT and the PZT probe, respectively. The surface pressures of the CMUT and PZT were 0.55 ± 0.06 MPa and 1.68 ± 0.09 MPa, respectively, and the receive sensitivities of the rows (receiving elements) were 12.9 ± 0.7 μV/Pa and 13.7 {\^A}± 2.1 μV/Pa.",
keywords = "CMUT, PZT, Row–column-addressing, Ultrasound, Volumetric imaging",
author = "Mathias Engholm and Hamed Bouzari and Christiansen, {Thomas Lehrmann} and Christopher Beers and Bagge, {Jan Peter} and Moesner, {Lars Nordahl} and Diederichsen, {S{\o}ren Elmin} and Stuart, {Matthias Bo} and Jensen, {J{\o}rgen Arendt} and Thomsen, {Erik Vilain}",
year = "2018",
doi = "10.1016/j.sna.2018.02.031",
language = "English",
volume = "273",
pages = "121--133",
journal = "Sensors and Actuators A: Physical",
issn = "0924-4247",
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Probe development of CMUT and PZT row-column-addressed 2-D arrays. / Engholm, Mathias; Bouzari, Hamed; Christiansen, Thomas Lehrmann; Beers, Christopher; Bagge, Jan Peter; Moesner, Lars Nordahl; Diederichsen, Søren Elmin; Stuart, Matthias Bo; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt; Thomsen, Erik Vilain.

In: Sensors and Actuators A: Physical, Vol. 273, 2018, p. 121-133.

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Probe development of CMUT and PZT row-column-addressed 2-D arrays

AU - Engholm, Mathias

AU - Bouzari, Hamed

AU - Christiansen, Thomas Lehrmann

AU - Beers, Christopher

AU - Bagge, Jan Peter

AU - Moesner, Lars Nordahl

AU - Diederichsen, Søren Elmin

AU - Stuart, Matthias Bo

AU - Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

AU - Thomsen, Erik Vilain

PY - 2018

Y1 - 2018

N2 - This paper presents the characterization of two prototyped fully integrated 62 + 62 row-column-addressed (RCA) 2-D transducer array probes, which are based on capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducer (CMUT) and on piezoelectric transducer (PZT) technology, respectively. Both transducers have integrated apodization to reduce ghost echoes and were designed with similar acoustical features i.e. 3 MHz center frequency, λ/2-pitch and 24.8 mm2  × 24.8 mm2 active footprint. The transducer arrays were assembled in a 3-D printed probe handle with electromagnetic shield and integrated electronics for driving the 128-channel coaxial cable to the scanner. The electronics were designed to allow all elements, both rows and columns, to be used interchangeably as either transmitters or receivers. The transducer characterization i.e. bandwidth, phase delay, surface pressure, sensitivity, insertion loss, and acoustical crosstalk, were based on several single element measurements, including pressure and pulse-echo, and were evaluated quantitatively and comparatively. The weighted center frequency was 3.0 MHz for both probes and the measured -6 dB fractional bandwidth was 109 ± 4% and 80 ± 3% for the CMUT and the PZT probe, respectively. The surface pressures of the CMUT and PZT were 0.55 ± 0.06 MPa and 1.68 ± 0.09 MPa, respectively, and the receive sensitivities of the rows (receiving elements) were 12.9 ± 0.7 μV/Pa and 13.7 ± 2.1 μV/Pa.

AB - This paper presents the characterization of two prototyped fully integrated 62 + 62 row-column-addressed (RCA) 2-D transducer array probes, which are based on capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducer (CMUT) and on piezoelectric transducer (PZT) technology, respectively. Both transducers have integrated apodization to reduce ghost echoes and were designed with similar acoustical features i.e. 3 MHz center frequency, λ/2-pitch and 24.8 mm2  × 24.8 mm2 active footprint. The transducer arrays were assembled in a 3-D printed probe handle with electromagnetic shield and integrated electronics for driving the 128-channel coaxial cable to the scanner. The electronics were designed to allow all elements, both rows and columns, to be used interchangeably as either transmitters or receivers. The transducer characterization i.e. bandwidth, phase delay, surface pressure, sensitivity, insertion loss, and acoustical crosstalk, were based on several single element measurements, including pressure and pulse-echo, and were evaluated quantitatively and comparatively. The weighted center frequency was 3.0 MHz for both probes and the measured -6 dB fractional bandwidth was 109 ± 4% and 80 ± 3% for the CMUT and the PZT probe, respectively. The surface pressures of the CMUT and PZT were 0.55 ± 0.06 MPa and 1.68 ± 0.09 MPa, respectively, and the receive sensitivities of the rows (receiving elements) were 12.9 ± 0.7 μV/Pa and 13.7 ± 2.1 μV/Pa.

KW - CMUT

KW - PZT

KW - Row–column-addressing

KW - Ultrasound

KW - Volumetric imaging

U2 - 10.1016/j.sna.2018.02.031

DO - 10.1016/j.sna.2018.02.031

M3 - Journal article

VL - 273

SP - 121

EP - 133

JO - Sensors and Actuators A: Physical

JF - Sensors and Actuators A: Physical

SN - 0924-4247

ER -