Probabilistic cumulative risk assessment of anti-androgenic pesticides in food

Anne Kirstine Müller, Sieto Bosgra, Polly E. Boon, Hilko van der Voet, Elsa Nielsen, Ole Ladefoged

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review


In this paper, we present a cumulative risk assessment of three anti-androgenic pesticides (vinclozolin, procymidone and prochloraz) using the relative potency factor (RPF) approach and an integrated probabilistic risk assessment (IPRA) model. RPFs for each substance were estimated for three reproductive endpoints (ano-genital distance, and weights of the seminal vesicles and the musculus levator ani/bulbocavernosus) in male rat foetuses exposed in utero. The cumulative dietary intake was estimated based on consumption data and residue data from the Netherlands. The IPRA model combines variability in both exposure and sensitivity between individuals into a distribution of individual margins of exposures (IMoEs) and IMoEs of 1 or less indicate a possible concern. The assessment did not result in IMoEs ≤ 1. The endpoint ‘weight of seminal vesicles’ resulted in the lowest IMoEs (0.1th percentile: 198) and the fraction of individuals with IMoEs < 1000 was 1.43%. For the two other endpoints, the fractions were slightly lower. Thus, cumulative dietary exposure of Dutch women to vinclozolin, procymidone and prochloraz is not likely to be of concern for the reproductive development of their male foetuses. However, other anti-androgenic substances and exposure routes should also be included in the cumulative assessment to make it more comprehensive.
Original languageEnglish
JournalFood and Chemical Toxicology
Issue number12
Pages (from-to)2951-2962
Publication statusPublished - 2009


  • Probabilistic risk assessment
  • Prochloraz
  • Vinclozolin
  • Cumulative exposure
  • Procymidone
  • Anti-androgenic pesticides


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