Privacy preserving authentication system based on non-interactive zero knowledge proof suitable for Internet of Things

Ashutosh Dhar Dwivedi*, Rajani Singh, Uttam Ghosh, Raghava Rao Mukkamala, Amr Tolba, Omar Said

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review


Nowadays, with the advancement of smart technologies, the Internet of Things (IoT) emerged as a booming technology that can provide better quality and facilities for the residents of smart cities. Smart cities can offer several services and have several applications in healthcare, transportation, education etc. Despite such a potential vision, the privacy of users on these IoT devices is a major concern. Most authentication schemes do not provide privacy and anonymity to legitimate users. to tackle this problem, we propose an efficient Zero Knowledge-based authentication scheme in the paper that authenticates devices on the network without knowing the information about user identity or revealing any other data entered by users. To explain our system framework at the micro-level, we apply our privacy-preserving scheme to IoT based healthcare applications, but it can easily be extended to the more general use cases where privacy-preserving authentication is required. This paper’s second major contribution is designing the data encryption algorithm ZKNimble that is mainly suitable for lightweight devices. Once the user is authenticated using Zero Knowledge Proof, the ZKNimble cipher can be used for legitimate users’ encryption and decryption processes.

Original languageEnglish
JournalJournal of Ambient Intelligence and Humanized Computing
Number of pages11
Publication statusPublished - 2021

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
The work of Ashutosh Dhar Dwivedi is supported by the Independent Research Fund Denmark for Technology and Production under Grant 8022-00348A. The work of Rajani Singh is funded by the Danish Ministry of Education and Science, Digital Pilot Hub and Skylab Digital. The work of Omar Said is funded by Taif University Researchers Supporting Project number (TURSP-2020/60), Taif University, Taif, Saudi Arabia.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021, The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature.


  • Authentication
  • Healthcare
  • Internet of Things
  • Privacy
  • Security
  • Smart cities
  • Zero knowledge proof


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