Primary Frequency Control with Refrigerators under Startup Dynamics and Lockout Constraints

Charalampos Ziras, Evangelos Vrettos, Goeran Andersson

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingArticle in proceedingsResearchpeer-review


There is a growing interest in utilizing demand-side flexibility to provide ancillary services. Various methods have been proposed for frequency control with thermostatically controlled loads, yet few consider practical load constraints. In this paper, we develop a fully decentralized method to provide primary frequency control (PFC) with domestic refrigerators taking into account startup compressor dynamics and lockout constraints. The proposed method relies on probabilistic switching to avoid synchronization among loads and large deviations from loads' baseline consumption, and on dynamic resetting of temperature deadbands to provide accurate PFC reserves. We demonstrate the method's performance via simulations with an extract of real frequency data, and via dynamic simulations with a one-area power system model. The results show that the method performs very well in both cases, and allows refrigerator aggregations to mimic conventional generators' droop characteristic and substitute them in PFC. To illustrate the importance of considering startup dynamics and lockout constraints in control design, we show that our approach achieves better results compared to an existing approach that neglects such constraints.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publication2015 IEEE Power & Energy Society General Meeting
Number of pages5
Publication date2015
ISBN (Print)978-1-4673-8040-9
Publication statusPublished - 2015
Externally publishedYes
EventIEEE Power and Energy Society General Meeting 2015 - Denver, CO, United States
Duration: 26 Jul 201530 Jul 2015


ConferenceIEEE Power and Energy Society General Meeting 2015
CountryUnited States
CityDenver, CO
SeriesIeee Power and Energy Society General Meeting


  • refrigerators
  • frequency control
  • power system simulation
  • probability
  • one-area power system model
  • demand-side flexibility
  • ancillary services
  • thermostatically controlled loads
  • practical load constraints
  • primary frequency control
  • domestic refrigerators
  • startup compressor dynamics
  • lockout constraints
  • probabilistic switching
  • baseline consumption
  • dynamic resetting
  • temperature deadbands
  • PFC reserves
  • real frequency data
  • dynamic simulations
  • Switches
  • Refrigerators
  • Frequency control
  • Power system dynamics
  • Sociology
  • Statistics
  • Load modeling
  • Refrigeration and cold storage
  • Other topics in statistics
  • Control of heat systems


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