Pressurized HxCyOz Cells at ca. 250 °C: Potential and Challenges

Mogens Bjerg Mogensen, Christodoulos Chatzichristodoulou, Frank Allebrod, Jonathan Hallinder, Federica Vico, Mohammed Hussain Abdul Jabbar, Peter Holtappels

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Abstract

The increasing need for easy and affordable storage of intermittent renewable energy has encouraged us to explore the possibilities of pressurized electrolysis and fuel cells operating in the temperature range of 200 – 300 °C and pressure from a few bar up to 50 bar and above. Most electrochemical rate limiting processes are strongly thermal activated. Also, increased pressure may increase the electrode reaction rates. High pressure means increase energy density in gaseous products. Furthermore, as hydrocarbons, alcohols or ethers - in common denoted HxCyOz - are very convenient fuels, we have focus on cells that may have a potential of forming or using HxCyOz in electrolysis or fuel cell mode, respectively. Examples of HxCyOz are hydrogen with (x,y,z) = (2,0,0), carbon monoxide with (x,y,z) = (0,1,1), methane with (x,y,z) = (4,1,0), gasoline with approximately (x,y,z) = (18,8,0), methanol with (x,y,z) = (4,1,1), and dimethyl ether (DME) with (x,y,z) = (6,2,1). The temperature about 200 – 300 °C is of particular interest because if the direct electrochemical reduction products from electrolysis of H2O and CO2 mixtures are H2 and CO (syngas) then this temperature together with increased pressure makes it potentially possible to convert the syngas into HxCyOz inside the cathode compartment using suitable catalysts, because such conditions are very similar to the commercial catalysis technology used by chemical industry.
A brief review of some literature behind this strategic thinking is given, followed by examples of results from our own laboratory. So far the concept of high temperature and pressure electrolysis has proven successful on small scale using button cell with KOH(aq.) electrolyte immobilized in a porous ceramic layer. Also cells using immobilized K2CO3(aq.), CsH2PO4 solid acid, and BaZr1-u-vCeuYvO3-δ proton conducting electrolytes have been constructed and tested. Reduction of CO2 seems significantly more difficult than reduction of H2O. This and many other challenges appear from our work.
The apparent challenges and the potential benefits that make it worthwhile to overcome the challenges are discussed and some main arguments in favor of continuing this strategy are presented.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationProceedings of 4th European PEFC and H2 Forum 2013
Number of pages8
PublisherEuropean Fuel Cell Forum
Publication date2013
Article numberA0905
Publication statusPublished - 2013
Event4th European PEFC and H2 Forum 2013 - Luverne, Switzerland
Duration: 2 Jul 20135 Jul 2013
Conference number: 4

Conference

Conference4th European PEFC and H2 Forum 2013
Number4
CountrySwitzerland
CityLuverne
Period02/07/201305/07/2013

Cite this

Mogensen, M. B., Chatzichristodoulou, C., Allebrod, F., Hallinder, J., Vico, F., Abdul Jabbar, M. H., & Holtappels, P. (2013). Pressurized HxCyOz Cells at ca. 250 °C: Potential and Challenges. In Proceedings of 4th European PEFC and H2 Forum 2013 [A0905] European Fuel Cell Forum.
Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg ; Chatzichristodoulou, Christodoulos ; Allebrod, Frank ; Hallinder, Jonathan ; Vico, Federica ; Abdul Jabbar, Mohammed Hussain ; Holtappels, Peter. / Pressurized HxCyOz Cells at ca. 250 °C: Potential and Challenges. Proceedings of 4th European PEFC and H2 Forum 2013. European Fuel Cell Forum, 2013.
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abstract = "The increasing need for easy and affordable storage of intermittent renewable energy has encouraged us to explore the possibilities of pressurized electrolysis and fuel cells operating in the temperature range of 200 – 300 °C and pressure from a few bar up to 50 bar and above. Most electrochemical rate limiting processes are strongly thermal activated. Also, increased pressure may increase the electrode reaction rates. High pressure means increase energy density in gaseous products. Furthermore, as hydrocarbons, alcohols or ethers - in common denoted HxCyOz - are very convenient fuels, we have focus on cells that may have a potential of forming or using HxCyOz in electrolysis or fuel cell mode, respectively. Examples of HxCyOz are hydrogen with (x,y,z) = (2,0,0), carbon monoxide with (x,y,z) = (0,1,1), methane with (x,y,z) = (4,1,0), gasoline with approximately (x,y,z) = (18,8,0), methanol with (x,y,z) = (4,1,1), and dimethyl ether (DME) with (x,y,z) = (6,2,1). The temperature about 200 – 300 °C is of particular interest because if the direct electrochemical reduction products from electrolysis of H2O and CO2 mixtures are H2 and CO (syngas) then this temperature together with increased pressure makes it potentially possible to convert the syngas into HxCyOz inside the cathode compartment using suitable catalysts, because such conditions are very similar to the commercial catalysis technology used by chemical industry.A brief review of some literature behind this strategic thinking is given, followed by examples of results from our own laboratory. So far the concept of high temperature and pressure electrolysis has proven successful on small scale using button cell with KOH(aq.) electrolyte immobilized in a porous ceramic layer. Also cells using immobilized K2CO3(aq.), CsH2PO4 solid acid, and BaZr1-u-vCeuYvO3-δ proton conducting electrolytes have been constructed and tested. Reduction of CO2 seems significantly more difficult than reduction of H2O. This and many other challenges appear from our work. The apparent challenges and the potential benefits that make it worthwhile to overcome the challenges are discussed and some main arguments in favor of continuing this strategy are presented.",
author = "Mogensen, {Mogens Bjerg} and Christodoulos Chatzichristodoulou and Frank Allebrod and Jonathan Hallinder and Federica Vico and {Abdul Jabbar}, {Mohammed Hussain} and Peter Holtappels",
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Mogensen, MB, Chatzichristodoulou, C, Allebrod, F, Hallinder, J, Vico, F, Abdul Jabbar, MH & Holtappels, P 2013, Pressurized HxCyOz Cells at ca. 250 °C: Potential and Challenges. in Proceedings of 4th European PEFC and H2 Forum 2013., A0905, European Fuel Cell Forum, 4th European PEFC and H2 Forum 2013, Luverne, Switzerland, 02/07/2013.

Pressurized HxCyOz Cells at ca. 250 °C: Potential and Challenges. / Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg; Chatzichristodoulou, Christodoulos; Allebrod, Frank; Hallinder, Jonathan; Vico, Federica; Abdul Jabbar, Mohammed Hussain; Holtappels, Peter.

Proceedings of 4th European PEFC and H2 Forum 2013. European Fuel Cell Forum, 2013. A0905.

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingArticle in proceedingsResearchpeer-review

TY - GEN

T1 - Pressurized HxCyOz Cells at ca. 250 °C: Potential and Challenges

AU - Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg

AU - Chatzichristodoulou, Christodoulos

AU - Allebrod, Frank

AU - Hallinder, Jonathan

AU - Vico, Federica

AU - Abdul Jabbar, Mohammed Hussain

AU - Holtappels, Peter

PY - 2013

Y1 - 2013

N2 - The increasing need for easy and affordable storage of intermittent renewable energy has encouraged us to explore the possibilities of pressurized electrolysis and fuel cells operating in the temperature range of 200 – 300 °C and pressure from a few bar up to 50 bar and above. Most electrochemical rate limiting processes are strongly thermal activated. Also, increased pressure may increase the electrode reaction rates. High pressure means increase energy density in gaseous products. Furthermore, as hydrocarbons, alcohols or ethers - in common denoted HxCyOz - are very convenient fuels, we have focus on cells that may have a potential of forming or using HxCyOz in electrolysis or fuel cell mode, respectively. Examples of HxCyOz are hydrogen with (x,y,z) = (2,0,0), carbon monoxide with (x,y,z) = (0,1,1), methane with (x,y,z) = (4,1,0), gasoline with approximately (x,y,z) = (18,8,0), methanol with (x,y,z) = (4,1,1), and dimethyl ether (DME) with (x,y,z) = (6,2,1). The temperature about 200 – 300 °C is of particular interest because if the direct electrochemical reduction products from electrolysis of H2O and CO2 mixtures are H2 and CO (syngas) then this temperature together with increased pressure makes it potentially possible to convert the syngas into HxCyOz inside the cathode compartment using suitable catalysts, because such conditions are very similar to the commercial catalysis technology used by chemical industry.A brief review of some literature behind this strategic thinking is given, followed by examples of results from our own laboratory. So far the concept of high temperature and pressure electrolysis has proven successful on small scale using button cell with KOH(aq.) electrolyte immobilized in a porous ceramic layer. Also cells using immobilized K2CO3(aq.), CsH2PO4 solid acid, and BaZr1-u-vCeuYvO3-δ proton conducting electrolytes have been constructed and tested. Reduction of CO2 seems significantly more difficult than reduction of H2O. This and many other challenges appear from our work. The apparent challenges and the potential benefits that make it worthwhile to overcome the challenges are discussed and some main arguments in favor of continuing this strategy are presented.

AB - The increasing need for easy and affordable storage of intermittent renewable energy has encouraged us to explore the possibilities of pressurized electrolysis and fuel cells operating in the temperature range of 200 – 300 °C and pressure from a few bar up to 50 bar and above. Most electrochemical rate limiting processes are strongly thermal activated. Also, increased pressure may increase the electrode reaction rates. High pressure means increase energy density in gaseous products. Furthermore, as hydrocarbons, alcohols or ethers - in common denoted HxCyOz - are very convenient fuels, we have focus on cells that may have a potential of forming or using HxCyOz in electrolysis or fuel cell mode, respectively. Examples of HxCyOz are hydrogen with (x,y,z) = (2,0,0), carbon monoxide with (x,y,z) = (0,1,1), methane with (x,y,z) = (4,1,0), gasoline with approximately (x,y,z) = (18,8,0), methanol with (x,y,z) = (4,1,1), and dimethyl ether (DME) with (x,y,z) = (6,2,1). The temperature about 200 – 300 °C is of particular interest because if the direct electrochemical reduction products from electrolysis of H2O and CO2 mixtures are H2 and CO (syngas) then this temperature together with increased pressure makes it potentially possible to convert the syngas into HxCyOz inside the cathode compartment using suitable catalysts, because such conditions are very similar to the commercial catalysis technology used by chemical industry.A brief review of some literature behind this strategic thinking is given, followed by examples of results from our own laboratory. So far the concept of high temperature and pressure electrolysis has proven successful on small scale using button cell with KOH(aq.) electrolyte immobilized in a porous ceramic layer. Also cells using immobilized K2CO3(aq.), CsH2PO4 solid acid, and BaZr1-u-vCeuYvO3-δ proton conducting electrolytes have been constructed and tested. Reduction of CO2 seems significantly more difficult than reduction of H2O. This and many other challenges appear from our work. The apparent challenges and the potential benefits that make it worthwhile to overcome the challenges are discussed and some main arguments in favor of continuing this strategy are presented.

M3 - Article in proceedings

BT - Proceedings of 4th European PEFC and H2 Forum 2013

PB - European Fuel Cell Forum

ER -

Mogensen MB, Chatzichristodoulou C, Allebrod F, Hallinder J, Vico F, Abdul Jabbar MH et al. Pressurized HxCyOz Cells at ca. 250 °C: Potential and Challenges. In Proceedings of 4th European PEFC and H2 Forum 2013. European Fuel Cell Forum. 2013. A0905