Preparation and optimization of soy (Katul cultivar) protein isolate cold-set gels induced by CaCl2 and transglutaminase

Behdad Shokrollahi Yanchemeh, Mehdi Varidi*, Seyed Mohammad Ali Razavi*, Farshad Sohbatzadeh, Mohammad Amin Mohammadifar

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

36 Downloads (Pure)


Response surface methodology (RSM) was employed to analyze the effects of three independent variables included of protein isolate dispersions (8%-12% w/v), CaCl2 (0-0.60 M), and TGase transglutaminase (10-50 U g-1), to optimize syneresis, turbidity, stiffness, and loss tangent of gels made from soy protein isolate (SPI). It was found that the physical properties of the gels are mainly dependent on processing conditions. With increasing CaCl2, transglutaminase (TGase), and protein concentrations, gel stiffness and turbidity increased. The effect of protein content on turbidity was more intense than that of CaCl2 and TGase concentrations. With increasing TGase concentration, gel syneresis decreased. Numerical optimization determined the optimum preparation of soy protein isolate cold-set gels conditions based on the highest stiffness of gels, and the lowest syneresis, turbidity, and loss tangent as being protein content of 10.10%, CaCl2 of 0.6 M, and TGase concentration of 46 U g-1. At this optimum point, stiffness, turbidity, syneresis, and loss tangent were found to be 218.85 (g), 0.76, 0.34 (%), and 0.2 (%), respectively. The microstructural properties of the gels were evaluated by cryo-SEM and it was found that the three-dimensional structures of the SPI gel were denser in the presence of both TGase and CaCl2, compared to those made from the SPI gel with TGase or salt alone.
Original languageEnglish
JournalFood Science and Nutrition
Number of pages14
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 2023

Bibliographical note

Funding information: Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Grant/Award Number: 41123


  • Calcium chloride
  • Gel
  • Response surface methodology
  • Soy protein isolate
  • Transglutaminase


Dive into the research topics of 'Preparation and optimization of soy (Katul cultivar) protein isolate cold-set gels induced by CaCl2 and transglutaminase'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this